web analytics

Tag Archive | "Ranger Steve Mueller"

Armchair Naturalist


By Ranger Steve Mueller

I am becoming more of an armchair naturalist and I expect other senior nature explorers are finding that necessary. I appreciate the inquiries and well wishes I have received. On bird count Saturday I planned to arrive for the intro and head home for a family day celebrating Christmas with relatives. I became quite ill Thursday and could not start the bird count. By Sunday, family convinced me I needed to go to hospital emergency at 10:30 p.m. I had been doing well for three weeks but I spent most of our family gathering in bed ill. Bummer.

The good news is I am rebounding on disgusting drugs. I spend more time birding from my window and saw a male Cooper’s Hawk on January 1. Good start for 2019. My friend Greg Petersen drives us to good birding locations. I continue with productive work even though I am limited in too many ways. I am working on completing Bryce Canyon National Park moth research with specimens I brought home for study and hope to complete the project this winter and present results at University of California Davis in July. There are still several field studies in progress. Like other people, I have too much to complete to die soon but cancer might dictate other plans. We each have our own health issues, whether it be heart, diabetes, or one of the multitude. Mine has a different name but yours might be as challenging to contend with. My best wishes for you for 2019 and hope we each make it through another successful, productive, and enjoyable year exploring nature niches.

When first diagnosed at age 47, survival expectations were 1 to 3 years. My multiple myeloma cancer is not curable but treatments can prolong life. I had ten years of smoldering MM before I was disabled and unable to continue employment. I needed a walker because of 7 spinal fractures and now can walk again. My skull is riddled with holes and bones are brittle. I now have ten fractures and getting out of bed can break bones. My last break was the fibula when I stood up during a butterfly survey. With the two bone marrow transplants and the current clinical trial, I have exceeded the survival mean. Survival is now 7 to 8 years. A couple others have been in the program as long but I am in the top survival group. Doctors count from when treatment begins and consider me in year 11. I count from diagnosis and that is 21 years. I have made it to age 68 and University of Chicago hospital oncology staff regularly comment on my longevity. My message is, work to stay positive and continue productive work that is meaningful for life. Chemo is important but I consider support received from you and my work in the sanctuary to enhance biodiversity equally vital. 

Though Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary is our private property, we open it for visits. I have always disliked “No Trespassing” signs. We ask people to call or e-mail to let me know when they would like to visit and we request respect for creatures whose homes are entered. Donations to assist with biodiversity enhancement are welcome. We have not charged people for access like a business and we are not a tax-exempt nonprofit. We pay for projects with my pension and I hire youth like people hire high schoolers to shovel their sidewalks. Volunteer assistance is welcome. V&V Nursery across the road has allowed parking for sanctuary access.

People are welcome to walk the sanctuary on their own or with me if timing works. Walk the 1.5 miles of trails where I have placed interpretive signs and perhaps hear the Barred Owl or see the Red-tailed or Cooper’s Hawks. Wild turkeys might show themselves. My hearing has gotten poor from chemo and age so I appreciate help from those that hear birds. If you are only up to birding from a stationary location, come and enjoy the dozen + or – bird species we see at our feeders. I watched a Pileated Woodpecker from my window as it drilled a fifth hole in a cherry tree last week. A Great Blue Heron was flushed at the creek a couple weeks ago.

We are not a nature center with a primary mission of natural history education. I was director at both the local Howard Christensen Nature Center in North Kent County where I encourage you to become a member and at the Wittenbach/Wege Agri-science and Environmental Education Center in Lowell. Visit Blandford Nature Center in Grand Rapids. All provide family and school education programs. Here at Ody Brook our mission is biodiversity enhancement but I lead special focus group programs for a fee.

Enjoy what works for you and the family when exploring the wonders of nature. Bird, insect, and wildflower explorers, deer hunters and anglers are important for helping people learn better ways to enhance biodiversity so a healthy future is present for coming generations of life. 

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.


Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (1)

Extinction of meaning


By Ranger Steve Mueller

A new year with new hope. Experiencing the fullness of the outdoors has been a constant theme for my nature niche articles. I will write my 500th article for the newspapers this year and many are archived on line. One needs experiences in nature to fully appreciate the natural world that supports us. Getting outdoors with family, friends, children, and grandchildren to spend time with all creatures great and small is essential. 

Essential for what? That discourse will go far beyond the space allowed. Suffice it to say, “Creation Care is Essential.” There is an inalienable right for us and other species to live without us threating many with extinction. We each do our best to live and thrive. With that comes responsibility to live within our means. 

When we excessively use natural resources such as coal, we threaten our own wellbeing and existence. The fundamental question I encourage we ask is, do we live in a manner that shares the world responsibly with the 30 to 50 million species that sustain healthy ecosystems? Dr. Dave Warners, from Calvin College, along with many scientists have informed us that human activities are causing 50,000 species to go extinct annually. There are practical scientific reasons why this should be prevented but they carry little influence with many people. 

Bryan Pfeiffer recently wrote an essay titled the “Extinction of Meaning” with a focus built around the Poweshiek Skipperling. I asked Bryan if I could use excerpts from his article but limited space available for my column does not allow me to do it justice. Please go to his website www.bryanpfeiffer.com to read his article. He concludes, “Without the skipperling, the prairie will be a prairie depleted. And so, will we ourselves be depleted — not just of a butterfly gone forever, but also of a loss of human awareness and restraint, an extinction of what it means to love and live responsibly with nature.” 

Bryan writes, “Ecosystems provide us with tangible “services” to which we can assign dollar values: mangrove swamps and barrier islands protecting us from coastal floods or storm surges, for example; forests sequestering carbon and easing the climate disaster; or even value in the peace of mind we find in the good company of wildlife. These notions don’t find much traction in the Trump administration. What good is a butterfly that doesn’t turn us a profit?”

The Poweshiek skipperling occurred in the annual NABA Michigan butterfly count reports until a few years ago. It is still found in a few other Michigan sites and Great Lakes Region. The species has disappeared from nearly all sites in its range and likely will be another of the annual 50,000 species to pass into oblivion. 

Butterflies and moths have been a focus of my professional research and there is much to be learned. When I began research in southern Utah, 25 butterfly species were documented for the region and my work increased the known count to 72 species. I discovered a new species of virgin tiger moth that is named Grammia brillians

In our region there is are also many unknowns waiting discovery. I found a breeding colony of Northern Blue Butterflies and the Michigan DNR immediately listed the species as threatened and provided a nongame grant for me to conduct life history research. I found its caterpillar feeds on a Michigan threatened plant species called dwarf bilberry. My limited work on Isle Royale added two additional species to the list of known butterflies in the national park. The point is we are not aware of the inhabitants that share the world with us. 

Bryan wrote about the Extinction of Experience and Meaning stating: “What worries me more is that most Americans know little of — and care even less about — the spectacular natural diversity surrounding every one of us. We are ignorant of the rainbow of warblers — dozens of species — passing through in migration each spring.”

He further quoted my friend Bob Pyle, lepidopterist, writer, and conservationist who refers to “extinction of experience”—our estrangement from the familiar. “If we do not know what lives next to us, we will not notice when it’s gone.” My hope for the new year is that every one of us will have personal experiences discovering the natural world around us. Those experiences will develop into meaning that leads to Creation Care. Have a Happy New Year of discovery. My column will highlight nature occurrences that I hope helps us explore outdoors.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.


Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

Insects in Winter


By Ranger Steve Mueller

Winter active insects have different nature niche adaptations for getting warm compared to birds or mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are inactive in winter as are some mammals and many birds migrate to warmer regions. Most insects and other invertebrates are stuck here all winter. Many aquatic insects maintain activity in winter. Their activity along with that of other invertebrates is minimized. 

Even when the ground is covered with snow, terrestrial insects can be seen actively going about their business of walking, jumping, or flying when conditions are suitable. Snowfleas are usually absent until well into the new year. They are not a flea but because they are small, black, and flip summersaults into the air, they have gained the name “flea.” A better name is springtail. When active on sunny winter days, they gather by the tens of thousands, usually at the base of large trees making the snow surface appear black. 

Dark tree bark absorbs heat and radiates the sun’s warmth. Winter sun rays are not restricted from striking the trunk as they pass through the bare canopy branches. Springtails are soil inhabitants that come above ground where the snow has melted around the south side of the tree trunks. They have a small spine on the underside at their tail end that projects forward. It is locked in place at the spine’s tip. 

Simulate the snapping mechanism that allows the springtail to flip summersaults into the air. Place two fingertips from opposite hands together at their very tip and provided increasing pressure until they snap apart. When the springtail lever snaps against the snow or hard surface it sends the lightweight an inch or two into the air to land somewhere nearby. A close view of massive snowfleas appears like jumping pepper on the snow.

Winter stoneflies, flies, and other insects fly on sunny winter days. When you see a name like stonefly with the two parts combined rather than separated to read stone fly, it indicates the species is not a true fly but belongs to a different classification Order. The same is true with snowflea.

To warm adequately to jump, walk, or fly, the organism must be small and usually dark. The dark body allows it to absorb sun energy and the small size allows heat energy to penetrate the body to warm muscles quickly. They also lose heat quickly. During short bursts of sun warmth, they can become active. 

Large hibernating adult insects like the mourning cloak and eastern comma butterflies require a longer stretch of warming to bring their muscles to a temperature for flight. I have seen a mourning cloak come out of hibernation in early January but usually they are not active until near the spring equinox. Even so, I watch for them to become active in late February or early March before the sun crosses the equator and gets spring into high gear. 

We might lay naked on the snow on a warm winter day but the sun will not warm us to a comfortable activity temperature by penetrating deep to our muscles like it does for a springtail. Instead, we will quickly suffer from hypothermia and die. I suggest we keep our oversized bodies bundled and lay in the snow making snow-angels. Each species has specialized body adaptations that allow it to function. Body size and color are important. 

Habitat is critical. Aquatic insects, crayfish (can you tell by letter spacing if the crayfish is a true fish or not?), and fish can remain active in chilly liquid water. Their body temperature, though cool, allows activity all winter. Anglers know fish eat in winter but feeding and digestion are slowed in cold water compared to warm season rivers and lakes. Peer into an ice fishing hole from a dark ice fishing shanty where it is like watching TV with fish swimming through the viewing screen. Viewing is best when sunlight penetrates the ice.

Enjoy looking for active insects on beautiful sunny winter days when you rent snowshoes or get free use with your family membership at the Howard Christensen Nature Center. Take the family winter exploring in new ways during the coming months between the winter solstice on December 21 and spring equinox on March 20. There are always interesting things to do outdoors any time of year. Remain active and enjoy active insects.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

Do you fly?


By Ranger Steve Mueller

When is the last time you flew under your own power and ability? This does not refer to flying in a plane. Many insects are small, lightweight, and have wings that allow them to become airborne. Some newly hatched spiders float miles through the air on a single silk thread and disperse a long distance from their site of origin. Birds take flight on feathers that lift their hollow-boned lightweight bodies. Bats are the only mammals that have mastered the air with flight but “flying squirrels” glide with the aid of skin flaps.

The Southern Flying Squirrel in our area and the Northern Flying Squirrels a bit to the north have skin that stretches between their front and hind legs. They leap into the air without fear of falling with a thud to the ground. They glide like a parasailer. These small squirrels, the size of chipmunks, are among the most nocturnal mammals so they are seldom seen. If you have allowed hollow trees to persist in your yard, it is likely you have these cute bug-eyed squirrels. 

Bats have thin sheets of skin between bones that are analogous to our phalange finger bones and are adept fliers who make a living removing flying insects in our neighborhood. The idea that they will get tangled in our hair has more to do with poor observation than reality. Bats flying near people’s heads are seeking an abundance of insects and an easy nature niche meal. They do not swoop so close to get tangled in hair. 

We are mammals that only fly in our dreams. Perhaps we have limited flight experiences. Remember those youthful days when you jumped from a swing and were airborne for a short flight. I recall once when I was in a leather strap swing seat instead of being on a solid board seat. When it was time to jump, the strap seat held me until the swing reached its peak assent. My body flew upward into the air from a tall swing in a county park. It was a long fall and when I hit the ground it hurt my legs. Flying did not work well that time.

Another flight experience was in dune country where I ran and jumped off a steep sand dune cliff. I sailed free through the air and landed on shifting sand where I slide downhill. My stomach seemed to rise into my chest as I dropped through space and produced a tummy tickler. It was great fun. Many of us have had a similar exciting experience when a roller coaster drops making us feel like we are suspended in air. 

When I sleep, I get to fly through the air in dreams. Karen says it is ridiculous how I fly. She flies “like a normal person” head first with arms outstretched in the manner we have seen superman or other super heroes fly. I fly flat on my back feet first and lift my head to look where I’m going. She says I am a lazy flier. I do not flap my arms or legs but simply move peacefully through the sky. In Karen’s dreams she is often being pursued and flies between utility wires to escape danger pursuing her. Her flights are “James Bond” events. 

My dreams do not indicate where I am going or what I am doing but it is a joy to travel through air viewing the countryside. Not every flight has been a joy. Twice I have fallen to my death in dreams. For whatever reason, I fell from a high building or mountainside and plunged earthward, where I splatted and died instantly. My spirit rose from the lifeless body where I viewed my crushed limp being.

Fortunately, my flights of fancy are usually wonderful excursions of mind and body. It would be nice to flutter like a butterfly through fields, hover like a hummingbird nectaring at a red columbine flower, or flit from tree to tree like a chickadee. 

Birds have lightweight hollow bones, which weigh less than their feathers, making flight possible. Insects are small and able to lift their bodies into the air. For us heavy bodied creatures, we must content ourselves with joyous flight in dreams or maybe with the aid of a hot air balloon that lifts our weight. 

How often do you fly aided by a parachute, hang glider, airplane, or some other device? What is your manner for being airborne? Self-propelled free flight is only a momentary reality in dreams. Enjoy the experience. 

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

River Wind


By Ranger Steve Mueller

We arrived at the river shortly before dusk. Our friends would join us early the next day. The river flowed straight toward us for about a quarter mile from the west before turning abruptly south. We selected a tent site where we could view the river and feel the breeze. It was fall so few bothersome insects were present and a breeze was comforting during the warm evening. 

We built a small fire in the forest service campsite grated fire ring to cook supper and make s’mores. Birds were mostly quiet during the late season but migrating warblers could be seen foraging in their transient nature niche from summer breeding grounds to winter havens far to the south. 

Grass was green and trees were beginning to flash colors we hadn’t seen in twelve months. Some were shedding a few leaves early. It was a peaceful evening and we were the only campers present. Families were home with children in school routines and it was premature for most hunters. 

We erected a dome tent with fiberglass rods that arched over the top. A rainfly covered the dome a few inches above the screen tent ceiling. The sides were waterproofed nylon. We laid our sleeping bags on small pads to make a comfortable bed and went to sleep after dousing the fire with water in the dark cloudy night. 

It was a quiet evening with only the infrequent hooting from a Great Horned Owl and the sound of rustling leaves as wind forced its way through the tree canopy. The breeze was soothing and lulled us to sleep like a mother humming at our bedside. 

Without warning the roar of a train startled and woke us from sound sleep as it raced closer. The dome tent that we could stand in was flattened and pressed against us. The rainfly was ripped off and carried into the forest. A strong straight wind or perhaps even a tornado was upon us. It was scary but exciting for Karen. For me it was terrifying. I had not inspected the area for dangerous trees that might break and crush us. 

I immediately envisioned John and Pat finding us in the morning dead under a fallen tree. The wind lessened quickly and the fiberglass rods supported the tent dome again. A pouring rain was coming through the screen tent apex. With flashlight in hand, I unzipped the tent and ran into the dark toward the downwind forest to recover the rainfly. Quickly, I returned with the slightly damaged bungy straps and rainfly that were ripped loose.

Together while being doused like in a shower, we covered the tent. Once back inside, we toweled our bags and tent floor as dry as possible and then dried ourselves. The sound of the roaring train came and went in an instant. I had learned that sound accompanies a tornado. When we got up in the morning little evidence indicated a tornado. No trees were uprooted and the area looked much like it did when were arrived. 

It must have been what is referred to as straight wind that came forcefully speeding down the quarter mile stretch of river and it did not turn at the river bend. Instead it continued eastward pressing the tent against our faces and trapping us prone on our backs. It was one of the scariest moments of my life but fear quickly passed when the dome erected itself and no tree was laying across our chests. 

We had a story to tell our friends when they arrived and that was much better than them finding us dead under a fallen tree. I learned that night it is important to survey a temporary camping residence for unexpected dangers. Rarely am I frightened when in the wild. Well maybe I should say infrequently. Dangers are present but rarely are they as dangerous as traveling in a car. One needs to be vigilant and cautious whether camping in wild country or going to the grocery in a car. It is usually more peaceful and safe camping than traveling on what seem like safe roads. Enjoy camping, learn how to stay safe, and have fun outdoors.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (1)

How birds stay warm


This winter might be a good time to feed the birds if you haven’t done so before.

Ranger Steve’s Nature Niche

By Ranger Steve Mueller

Many birds stay warm by migrating to warmer climes. Even more important for migrators is locating to places where they can find adequate food. Many birds that depend on insects, worms, and other invertebrates find moving to a winter home with adequate food is essential. Some that eat invertebrates stay in cold country but change their diet to vegetation and feed heavily on berries or even buds in winter.

American Robins that stay in our area move from our yards to swamps. I have been seeing robins during the last week of November and I am sure we will find many during the Christmas Bird Count on December 29. Come join us and discover what species are around in winter.

One of the most important ways birds stay warm in cold weather is by eating enough calories daily to maintain body heat. It appears this winter has a scarcity of food farther north. Evening Grosbeaks that we have not seen locally in years are making an appearance. Common Redpolls arrived in open country. Pine Siskins arrived at feeders after Thanksgiving. I did not expect them to arrive this early. Saw-whet Owls are reaching southward. This might be a great year to begin feeding birds if you haven’t maintained winter feeders.

As for staying warm, watch birds at your feeder on warm and cold days to notice differences in appearance and activity. I have not timed the frequency of birds returning to get seeds on cold verses warm days to learn if their foraging behavior changes. It seems they come and go more rapidly on cold days. It is difficult to keep track of a particular bird to monitor its behavior when several of the same species are visiting. Perhaps one will have feathers that make it distinguishable from others of its kind. Watch that bird and note the frequency of visits. Hopefully you will be able to observe it on both cold and warm days.

One of the most obvious things to notice is how birds look heavier in cold weather. They fluff their body feathers called contour feathers to trap air. The trapped air insolates and reduces heat loss. Small contour feathers are numerous and more abundant in winter. If feathers get wet they pack and do not insolate. You may have noticed this with a down sleeping bag. Birds have a preening gland at the base of their tail. They use their bill to gather waxy oil from the gland and spread it on feathers much like we use waterproofing oil on our boots.

Waterfowl, like ducks, geese, and swans, have a massive quantity of down feathers that keep them warm in winter while they float or swim in frigid water or lay on ice. If their down gets wet, the bird’s life will be short. Another vital adaptation to their aquatic nature niche is how blood circulates to and from their feet. Warm blood traveling in arteries to the feet flows adjacent to veins carrying blood from their feet. Heat from hot blood on the way to feet is transferred to cold blood returning from the feet. Cold blood is warmed by the veins touching warm arteries before blood reenters the body. The hot blood in route to feet is cooled. Instead of losing the heat to the environment, some heat is conserved by being transferred to the cold blood before it returns to the body.

It might not seem like a big deal but having moderately warmed blood entering the body instead of cold blood means the bird does not need to consume as many calories to maintain its body temperature. Watch birds like gulls standing on the ice to notice they often stand on one foot and tuck the other to the body. When watching behavior, determine if birds are facing the wind or away from the wind. When facing the wind, the air flows over the feathers and they are not ruffled to let cold air enter like when the wind approaches from behind.

Little things spell life and death. Like us, they can generate heat by increasing physical activity but this is only effective when they have enough food to replace lost body fat. During the night, a bird can consume its fat and starve in extreme cold. Black-capped Chickadees can go into a hibernation-like torpor where their heart rate and metabolism are reduced on long winter nights preventing too much body fat loss causing starvation.

These are some major methods employed to survive cold weather. Birds do not directly say thank you for us providing black oil sunflower seeds and suet but increased use of feeders in cold weather tells us they are appreciative.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

Kent County Christmas Bird Count


The Grand Rapids Audubon Club has maintained bird count records dating back to 1953. I began placing the data on an Excel spreadsheet in 1986 when I became count co- ordinator and added the historic data sometime during the 1990’s. That is 64 years of data tabulated. I use the data when summarizing the current year’s count by looking for interesting comparisons and include a couple notes for the published summary report.

It would be helpful for someone to proof the data entries and help get the tabulated data in order so it can be made available for distribution or printing. Let me know if you are interested in such a project. You can come to Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary and we can plan the project.

Join bird count participants at 7:30 a.m. on December 29, 2018 at Wittenbach/Wege Agriscience and Environmental Center (WWC), 11715 Vergennes Rd. in Lowell, Michigan 49331. Field teams are organized and depart by 8:00 a.m. They return around noon for lunch. Joan Heuvelhorst will prepare a lunch. Lunch cost is $5.00 or you can bring yourown. At 5 PM, section ndings are collected. Participatepart or all day. Participation is free with donations sent to support the National Audubon Program.

This citizen science project is great for introducing fami- lies to bird discovery and is fun data collection. It is a way for families to do meaningful things together outdoors with help from experienced birders.

Have a great time enjoying birds, birders, and gathering data useful for tracking bird locations and species abun- dance. Individual teams see about 25 to 30 species and when all teams’ data are compiled, we total around 55 to 60 species sighted.

I hope you are enjoying your domestic Thanksgiving tur- key dinner today. Wild Turkeys were mostly killed by over hunting and disappeared completely from Michigan and from most of North America. There were about ten million in the North American in the early 1800’s. By the early 1900’s they had been killed to near extinction. Only about 2 percent survived in widely scattered areas and were unable to rebuild their population.

People became aware of the disappearance and tried to remedy the problem. Hunting regulations were enacted but failed attempts to capture wild turkeys for reintroduction to suitable habitat nature niches were problematic. By the 1950’s an effective method for capturing turkeys was de- veloped using a cannon net.

In the 1980’s I participated with the Michigan DNR in a release of wild turkeys in the Rogue River State Game Area. Later a DNR wildlife biologist called me to learn if I could provide information about the success of reintroduc- tion from the small number released.

By serendipity, the night before I saw 97 turkeys cross the road in front of my vehicle as I went home from the Howard Christensen Nature Center where I was director. Ten years ago, at Ody Brook on Thanksgiving when our relatives were gathered and eating domestic turkey, 21 wild turkeys paraded through the front yard.

Species are declining for a variety of reasons while many politicians work to weaken or dismantle the Endangered Species Act. Vigilance is needed to protect species and nat- ural resources for our present and future wellbeing.

For more information about the bird count and citizen science, direct inquiries to count coordinators:

Tom Leggett: (616) 249-3382 E-mail; tomleggett@hot- mail.com or

Ranger Steve(Mueller) odybrook@chartermi.net 616- 696-1753.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be di- rected to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi. net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

Palmate, Pinnate, Toothed, Entire


By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

Look at your palm to notice your hand bones radiate from one basal area at your wrist outward to finger tips. Spread your fingers to make it more obvious. This pattern is called palmate. Think of the ribs branching from your spine and how they wrap around your chest in vertical rows. This pattern is like leaflets branching outward from a central shaft called the rachis on plants with compound leaves like roses, walnut trees, or sumac shrubs. 

Palmate, pinnate, toothed, entire, simple, and compound are few easy leaf characteristics to use to identify trees, shrubs, and other plants. Now is great time pick up leaves from the ground to enjoy the beauty of colors and to notice a variety of characteristics. Maybe you will want to pile leaves while raking, bury the kids, or even flop into the pile yourself. Take time to have fun with family and do things the kids or grandkids might not expect.

Imagine their surprise if grandpa gets into a pile of leaves with the kids. It will probably be even more surprising to grandpa’s kids than to the grandkids. When in the pile, have each family member pick a leaf and see how many colors can be found. Don’t miss the shades of tan, brown, yellow in addition to red, orange, green, and even black. 

If you are raking maples, the leaf veins will be palmate like the bones in your hand. Apple leaf veins will be pinnate and branch from a straight midrib that runs up the center of the leaf. On the abundant dogwood shrubs or dogwood trees, pinnate veins will branch from the central midrib, but veins curve toward the leaf tip. It is best to look at the underside of leaves where veins are more evident.

Beginning with a few leaf characteristics will make it easier to distinguish different plants. It is not even necessary to learn the names of the various plants. Simply enjoy different patterns and recognize how to separate them. 

Leaves might have teeth along the edge of the leaf blade. Teeth are sharp pointed projections along the edge. Some teeth are straight but cherries have curved teeth. There are plants with doubly serrate teeth. They are alternating teeth with one being large followed by a smaller one in a repeating pattern. The leaf blade might have a smooth untoothed edge from its base to the tip and is referred to as having an entire edge. 

Fallen leaves can be a bit tricky. Those with compound leaves tend to fall in pieces. Look at plants that have not dropped their leaves. The sumac shrubs still retain bright red compound leaves making them easy to find even when they are on the ground. To recognize if a leaf is compound, one needs to locate the leaf bud at the base of the leaf. Leaflets do not have a bud at the base of the leaflet.

On the sumac or walnut, there is a main leaf shaft called the rachis with pinnate leaflets branching from it. Look closely to notice there are no buds at the base of the leaflets. One needs to follow farther back to discover the bud at the base of the compound leaf where it attaches to the shrub branch. 

Bitternut hickory trees have compound leaves with fewer pinnate leaflets branching from their rachis than the sumac shrubs or walnut trees. The hickory drops leaflets individually while the walnut drops the leaf as a whole unit. Bitternut leaves become yellow while walnuts leaves fall green. 

The difference between simple and compound leaves is based on whether there is a bud at the base of the single leaf blade or whether the bud is at the base of a leaf having many leaflets. Spend time enjoying leaf characteristics in nature niches this fall and help family members experience the variety growing around the yard. 

Make raking leaves more than work. Make it an adventure into the mysteries of the living space you share with plants. There is more to enjoy in fall than the color change. 

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

Guardabosque Esteban


 

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

Fall is a good time to plant trees. Here, I am known as Ranger Steve. When I took middle school students to Costa Rica from Kent County, we worked with students from their communities to plant trees in damaged rainforests. There I was called Guardabosque Esteban. As “forest guard Steven,” the effort was to help young people learn how to protect the environment that supported community health, water, and the economy. 

Our students were paired with Costa Rican students and they planted nursery-grown trees. It was a wonderful experience for all, including the trees that could establish a good root system in a suitable nature niche.

Those middle school students are now 25 years older and I hope they show their kids the trees they planted. It was a fun and thrilling experience where the young people recognized how they could do something in their community to help maintain a healthy sustainable environment. 

Here at Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary our girls planted trees yearly. We planted seedling Christmas trees to harvest for our personal use. In order to harvest a tree at Christmas, it was required we plant trees so they would learn how to maintain a sustainable supply. 

Pine trees need care as they grow. Sawflies, a type of wasp, would eat limbs bare of needles. The girls were responsible for protecting the trees from the foraging damage and manually removed the insects rather than use poisons. The caterpillar like larvae were placed on ant mounds as a special treat for the ants. 

We wanted fir and spruce trees to provide winter cover for birds and to block visual and sound impacts from the road. They were planted in several locations. The trees were only knee high. Within a few years they were taller than the girls and heavily used by birds and rabbits for shelter. Now the trees are 30 plus feet tall. 

It started with the family act of planting. Fall has cooler weather that is good for plants and tree planters. We prefer to work in cool weather. It is even great to plant during a light rain. It protects the roots from drying. Fall soil is still warm and allows the tree to grow and establish before the ground freezes. 

Fall showers aid root survival. Trees were planted in locations that are not accessible to the garden hose and carrying water long distances is difficult. We hoped adequate rain would come as needed but that is always a gamble. During dry periods carrying water helps survival. Properly planting is important. 

Fertilizer is not recommended with fall planting. It encourages new root growth that will be killed by winter weather. Allow the tree to establish on its own in the warm fall soil with available moisture. When planted properly it should survive the winter and grow vigorously in the spring. I have noticed slow growth during the first few years as the roots establish out of sight and rapid stem growth follows.

It is best to plant trees and shrubs a few weeks before freezing weather cools the ground. Keep newly planted trees well-watered when possible so they go into winter dormancy well hydrated. 

Dig a hole twice as wide as the tree root mass and properly deep so the base of the stem meets the ground surface. Do not bury the stem or have the root trunk exposed above ground. Use the same soil removed from the hole when planting. Using other soil is not recommended because new root growth will stay in the richer amended soil. Let the tree seek nutrients from the surrounding area and reach outward. 

Hold the tree upright as it is planted and pack the soil so air pockets are eliminated. Watering helps eliminate air pockets that can cause roots to dry and die. Mulching around the tree prevents plant growth that will compete to make living difficult. Keep mulch away from the stem. Watch the tree grow. It will add zest and beauty to the yard for you and wildlife. Select native trees species because they have adaptations to the local environment.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (1)

Gold Treasures


A soldier beetle. Photo by Ranger Steve Mueller.

By Ranger Steve

The field has turned to gold overnight. The rich value exceeds that of the precious metal many would trade several weeks’ pay to possess. The field transforms itself without the aid of a forger pounding and engraving to human desire. The field knows just what a person needs to lift one’s spirits and hopes. 

Unlike the metal artisan that makes permanent engravings, the field has ever changing beauty that entices us to search its gold flower settings. Its golden surface has creative intricacies of a jewelry artist’s dreams.

After weeks of drought when plants seemed frozen in time, a 6-inch rain soaked deep. Plants greedily took every drop possible to quench a long waiting thirst. Less than half of the goldenrod were in bloom yesterday even though it was past normal flowering season. Today more than 70% are blooming. The waiting burst of gold was not just by plants. Insects of great variety have been on hold in quest of the rich golden treasure. 

Goldenrod’s flowers and pollen are more essential to life than a person’s quest for gold at the end of the rainbow. Like people seeking a pot of gold at rainbows end, insects seek the ephemeral gold of late summer. Many have their nature niche lives timed to its flowering. Bees and other insects seek nectar. The nectar reward is not free. Insects leave with a full stomach but are loaded with pollen they carry to neighboring goldenrods. 

Goldenrod pollen is large and heavy. It does not blow distances in the wind and requires delivery service to transport it to mature flowers. When a golden finch lands on a goldenrod stem in search of a tasty insect morsel, it undoubtedly knocks loose pollen. Instead of easily drifting on air currents to another flower, it falls to the ground. A number of ground creeping invertebrates consume the manna falling from the heavens. 

Pollen eating insects are attracted to the flowers like people are attracted to all you can eat restaurants. Goldenrods like other members of the large aster family, produce in excess to make sure pollen grains fertilize other flowers. Insects at the smorgasbord leave with pollen covered bodies to serve as dispersal agents.

I was told by a honeybee keeper, that members of his profession do not appreciate gold season. Honey bees get rich feeding on goldenrod nectar but the honey produced is bitter. People desire sweeter honey. 

The value of gold is in the eye of the beholder. Bees are joyous with the concentrated fields of gold. Honey connoisseurs are dismayed. I am particularly pleased with the great variety of creatures found among goldenrod. The abundance of monarchs deep golden orange in fields brings happiness to many. Pearl Crescents stand still on flowerheads long enough for us to see the tiny silver pearl adorning the hindwing undersurface at its tail end. The pearl is surrounded by the butterfly’s own version of muted gold. 

One can walk through a field of gold and return home with more golden memories than are possible to retain. It is necessary to share as many as possible at the dinner table before they are lost like nighttime dreams that seem to vaporize by the time breakfast is finished. 

Soldier beetles with gold and black wings find the massive flower heads perfect beds for copulation. Net-winged beetles with their own version of gold and black wing elytra are differently shaped, with the tail end of wings widening to give a triangular appearance. 

It is always good to have a field guide at the ready. Many find cell phone photos useful. Increasingly Apps are able to narrow an identification search to a few likely insects similar to how facial recognition programs are being used. For those of us still more comfortable with paper field guides, we flip pages in books like the Golden Guide to Insects. The Golden Guide is still our version of gold treasure at the end of a rainbow.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

advert
Cedar Car Co
Kent Theatre
Advertising Rates Brochure

Get Your Copy of The Cedar Springs Post for just $40 a year!