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Archive | Ranger Steve’s Nature Niche

Mosquito and Phoebe

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

Outdoor memories last a lifetime. It was on a field trip to Gwen Frostic’s outdoor nature studio, in Benzonia, west of Traverse City, that provided an interesting experience with an Eastern Phoebe. I was on a busman’s holiday, from my job as a State Park ranger, at Traverse State Park in the late 1960’s.

Gwen had screened in studios, where she painted her wonderful post cards and stationary, as well as wrote penetrating prose. If you have not experienced her wor, it will be a joyous outing this summer to visit. The natural beauty of her inspirational property offers others respite long after her passing.

Our group walked the boardwalks in June observing birds flit among shrubs and trees. Some mosquitoes brightened the day for hungry birds and filled their stomachs. We wore lightweight long sleeved shirts and used insect repellent as we visitors traversed the nature niches where a variety of life made home.

Birds thrive in habitats where insects live. One cannot expect birds where food is not abundant for feeding young. Even seed eating species raise young on an insect diet.

We came upon a screen shelter that was temporarily closed to access because an Eastern Phoebe constructed a nest on top of the door. Mike Jarea noticed a mosquito biting an almost grown young phoebe on top of its head. To help the young bird, he used his finger to kill the mosquito. When he did, five young birds prematurely left the nest. They were almost able to fly but not quite.

The two of us quickly gathered the birds and placed them back in the nest. I placed my hands over the birds until they calmed. Slowly I removed my hands and the birds remained huddled in the nest. What did not stay in the nest were hundreds of bird lice that blackened my hands.

Nests are dangerous places for birds but they are essential for their rearing. The sooner they leave the better they are able begin caring for themselves. Once able to minimally fly, they often fledge. Parents continue to feed them away from the nest, as well as teach them where and how to look for food.

When fledglings venture off on their own, they continue to depend on parents. The parents are not often seen, but they are in the area much like mother deer are in the area to return to couple times a day to feed fawns. Some people think they are rescuing orphaned young when, in reality, they are taking them away from caring parents and reducing young survival chances.

Sometimes young are orphaned because adults were killed by cars, cats, or some other event. It is best to leave apparent orphans where they are found, because there is a better chance that adults will return.

I brushed the massive black lice from my hands and was happy we were able to secure the birds in the nest to fledge another day. I suspect Mike learned to allow the mosquito its minute feast. It would be less dangerous to survival than the chicks leaving the nest prematurely. It is wonderful to observe animals from a safe distance in a manner that does not disrupt the lives.

An Eastern Phoebe has nested in our carport annually for 35 years. I wonder how many generations of birds succeeded one another. Normally they live only a few years and would be fortunate to reach an age 7, give a take a years. We disturb them when we approach the carport but it doesn’t cause them to move elsewhere for a new nest site. It is necessary to only pull the car part way into the carport for a few weeks when young are present. The young raise the rears to the edge of the nest and defecate. They cover our car hood with corrosive turds. We enjoy their presence and willingness to share space with us, so we do not remove the nest. Instead we take joy in seeing them daily.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433 or call 616-696-1753.

Written for CS Post, Vol. 28 No. 23.  11 June 2015.

Submitted: ? June 2015

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Spring to summer wildflowers

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller


The transition from spring wildflowers to summer wildflowers is nearly complete. The greatest difference is whether the plants flower under leafless trees or flower under expanded leaves.

It takes a lot of energy to produce flowers and seeds. It is best for plant sex to occur in full sunlight before trees cut off sun energy to the ground with leaves. I pay more attention to phenological summer beginning than to when the sun reaches its most northern zenith. Calendars mark the summer solstice when the sun no longer appears to move north and apears to start its southward movement.

Spring flowers end flowering when trees leaves expand and shade the forest floor. Plants wither or spend the summer without the flare of flowers while they store energy in roots, tubers, and rhizomes for next spring’s flowering. When sunlight penetrates through early spring branches of bare canopy, ground plants receive high-energy necessary flower sex.

Carpets of Narrow-leaved Spring Beauty flowers brighten the forest floor. The petals appear pink but they are not. Bend and look closely. You will notice white petals with pink lines. When we stand and look down, our eyes do not discern the detail. The pink lines on white petals act as nectar guides. Insects landing on the petals follow the lines like airport runways to nectar.

It is too late this year to take notice of these flowers but it will give you something to notice next year. The spring beauties complete their life cycle and disappear from view for ten months. Their nature niche activities occur between late April and early June. By late May fertilized flowers have formed seeds. Soon the entire plant above ground withers and is hidden below ground until next spring.

To ensure reproductive success this plant produces a series of short-lived flowers. A plant might remain in flower for several days but individual flowers come and go quickly. If poor weather prevents a flower from being fertilized, others blooming before and after will hopefully have had success on better days.

Other spring flowers racing to complete flowering before the forest canopy darkens the forest floor are Hepaticas, Trout Lilies, Bloodroot, Large-flowered Trillium, a variety of blue and yellow violets, with Mayapples squeezing in at the tail end before the canopy thickens. Each plant has it own unique adaptations and story with associated insects, birds, and small mammals. Stories abound.

An early summer plant that flowers in abundance as trees turn the landscape wonderful shades of green is Wild Geranium. It cheery pink blooms abound in forest and forest edges. For me it is a sign that summer has begun. It is still weeks before the summer solstice with the longest day of year and the official start of summer. The phenologies of plants have their own markers to indicate the end of spring and the beginning of summer. Oaks and mulberries are among the last trees to leaf out. Once they expanded their leaves, I consider spring to have ended and summer has begun.

Most trees flower before they have clothed themselves with new leaves. If they are wind pollinated, it best to flower when the wind can flow freely among the branches to spread pollen. Many are insect pollinated and it is easier for insects to travel from flower to flower without leaf obstacles. By the time maple leaves expand, the samaras helicopters are carrying seeds to the ground away from the parent. Non-descript oak flowers fall as withered tan strings but a portion will remain all summer to grow and loudly pound the roof, car, and ground as acorns in fall.

There is more occurring than one can notice but many notice summer blueberries come from spring bell-like flowers, pale current flowers usually do not attract our attention but we enjoy their summer fruits, and we notice of apples as they ripen. Take time to notice the beauty of life surrounding you.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. Phone: 616-696-1753.

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Hummingbird Brawl

By Ranger Steve Mueller


OUT-Nature-niche-hummingbirdRuby-throated Hummingbirds are a joy to watch as their iridescent throat patches catch sunlight and radiate brilliant ruby. It is not viewed with equal joy, when a male sees another’s ruby throat.

I watched a male performing its mating display by swooping down and up in a U pattern to impress a female. The Rudy-throated Hummingbird display was not as impressive as some western species I have observed. I watched western species loop 75 feet down and up. Here the bird was looping 20 feet.

When the male favorably captures the attention of a female, she will land nearby. His flight changes to sideways movement back and forth, as he tries to woo her.

At the feeder, birds are less tolerant and unwilling to share food resources with females or males. This evening turned into a Saturday night brawl for two males.

At 8:30 EDT, two tumbled to the ground and rolled around. I did not know if they were opposite sexes engaged in mating or males fighting. When they flew up, I could see both had ruby-throat patches. One tried visiting the feeder and the other charged from above, in a blur of speed. I thought both would be severely injured if they made physical contact.

The feeding bird quickly took evasive moves and the two continued aerial combat maneuvers for twenty minutes. In mid air they would come into physical contact and separate. Sometimes their contact would bring them to the ground, where I could only see them thrashing in the grass.

At 8:50 p.m., the two engaged in a ground brawl that I observed with binoculars. I could see one appeared to be pinning the other beneath. At times, both would be in view until one was subdued underneath again. This continued 20 minutes. It was getting dark. I left the window for a moment, and, on my return, I saw one at the feeder and could not see other.

I went outside to look for an injured, maimed, or dead male hummingbird, where they had a 20-minute exhausting fight. Fortunately, I did not have an unpleasant discovery. I did not see the second male again.

Why can’t animals get along? Hummers seem to be particularly anti-social with others of their species. In general, the behavior is common for many species and driven somewhat by hormone levels. Books and research papers elaborate and are beyond review here. In brief, reasons include:

*Individuals desire adequate breeding and nesting space with appropriate food, water, and shelter. This applies for species from hummers to people.

*Food is critical and many are unwilling to share a limited resource. Hummingbirds gather food in a small home range. Other species, like us, access food from around the world as well as from local farm markets.

*Water is generally accessible in our region for birds and people. Historically and currently, water rights conflicts abound. Proposals to pipe Great Lakes water to arid regions are frequent. Some question why people want to retain the Great Lakes instead of draining or lowering them to supply the southwest deserts and California. Lowering the Great Lakes would dry many wells, inland lakes and alter Great Lakes agriculture and ecosystem.

*Successful nesting requires good nest sites. It is difficult to raise young to adulthood. In the case of humans, we have become quite proficient with modern medicines, vaccines, food distribution, and community health programs. We expect most children to survive. A century ago, youth deaths were common. Youth deaths are still common for animals in nature niches. Help by allowing natural living space in a portion of your yard. We can each support Earth’s biodiversity.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433 or call 616-696-1753.

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Fly Zone

OUT-Nature-niche-Ranger-Steve-Head-ShotBy Ranger Steve Mueller


Flying animals have their own flight zones but they can change with weather conditions. Last week I was called regarding a Common Loon stranded in a farm field. Loons are very heavy birds and must run on the water for a considerable distance to become airborne. It is impossible for them to take flight from land. They cannot even walk on land because their legs are set back too far and their chest rests on the ground.

People told me the loon appeared to be ok and was calling from the field. Immediately I wondered if it hit a power line and tumbled to the ground. We headed for the site to determine how to help it. Thirty minutes lapsed between the time people left the bird and we returned. The bird was gone when we returned.

Other people had been watching and perhaps someone transported the loon to water. It is wonderful to help wildlife but people should know that it is illegal and often dangerous for the wildlife. It is best to call the Michigan DNR or a wildlife rehabilitator.

Many birds can be observed at this time of year but it is more likely to hear them. Each species has its own “fly zone.” Some remain high in the tree canopy and are very difficult to observe, like the Red-eyed Vireo or Cerulean Warbler. To see a Cerulean Warbler I suggest attending the Cerulean Warbler Festival at Michigan Audubon’s Otis Sanctuary near Hastings, during the first weekend of June. Look at Michigan Audubon’s Website for details.

Some birds like the American Robin and Eastern Phoebe are commonly seen in our yards. Robins fly from vegetation to lawn and forest floor in search of a meal. Phoebes perch near open areas and “hawk” insects by flying out to capture insects in the air and return to a perch. Protect healthy nature niches in home yards by avoiding chemicals that create a monoculture of grass. Allow other plants to grow among the grass because they support a variety of life essential for native birds and it allows them to find enough insects to feed the young. A picture perfect lawn is a sterile desert to wildlife.

On cool sunny days I often see insects in a very narrow fly zone, within inches of the ground. You might need a jacket but when you bend feel how warm the air is close to the ground. It might surprise you how many insects are present in that narrow fly zone close to the ground. I watched White-crowned Sparrows outside my window that appeared to be feeding in that narrow zone. I could not see anything they could feed on.

I went outside and got close to the ground to see what might present. There were massive numbers of minute flies much smaller than mosquitoes flying just above the grass. The sparrows were feasting on the tiny morsels. It seems they would not get adequate nutrition from such tiny creatures but volume counts.

On chilly days, butterflies stay close to the ground to take advantage of the thin thermal blanket of air warmed by the sun. When wind is present, the thin area close to the ground is even more important. Insects do not have internal heat regulation like we do. They must depend on the surrounding environment to provide their heat.

By using behavior that keeps them in warm fly zones, they can survive unless a bird finds them concentrated in fly zones. Even then, an abundance of insects allows enough to survive to reproduce, provided we allow our yards to become healthy nature niches for insects and birds.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433 or call 616-696-1753.

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Poisons in Life’s Stream

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller


Jared, a college intern at Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, and I were conducting a stream survey on Little Cedar Creek during the first week of May. We were studying physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in the headwaters. This exciting stuff is a bit beyond my regular endeavors. One can only pursue so much and be highly proficient in understanding the intricate workings of nature niches. We found two-inch Brook Trout fry and saw an eight-inch trout fanning over a depression in the streambed.

Life stages of trout have specialized individual goals for living. None were consciously concerned with the others, their role, or importance to stream life, the floodplain, upland, or fisherman. I saw four different people fishing Little Cedar Creek at Ody Brook opening week of trout season.

A college professor told me 10 years after my graduation that he remembered I am a generalist. That is something advised against since the 1960s for employability in this fast paced world of specialization. As a generalist, I assist others who pursue specialized interests and they help provide me with accurate information to share from their fields.

This nature niche seeks to make connections about poisons in the environment and in our bodies, and help us understand how poisons might impact the lives of animals in ecosystems.

Chemicals from herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers and everyday “safe” products used at home impact life. Many breakdown to harmless chemicals rapidly but others do not, so, we should use caution regarding what goes down the drain or is used in the yard. Specialists at waste treatment facilities are unable to extract the vast majorities of harmful chemicals we buy from store shelves. Prudent shoppers can protect present and future human generations as well as other life forms.

Back to trout, regarding chemical impacts affecting their lives in ecosystems and on our lives. I am leading to chemicals on my life and chemicals in your life. Consider how your use of chemicals affect and contribute to maintaining or harming healthy global life like that of trout and you. Think globally and act locally.

Many know I have an incurable cancer that can be treated with devastating chemicals to prolong my life for productivity, enjoyment, and contributions for maintaining healthy biodiversity in nature. I receive three chemicals during a 21-day period and then have a week to recover before starting another round of chemicals. I initially survived the statistical survival average of 1-3 three years and, with newer treatments, I am approaching a latest statistical average of 7 to 8 years. Now newer experimental treatments are expected to provide me greater longevity as I approach year eight.

A highly specialized multiple myeloma oncologist at the U of Chicago, who is coordinating this newest experimental treatment, states I am one of his healthier patients. He does not fully understand my periodic desire to quit chemo and let nature take its course. He says I am his only patient placing quality of life over longevity. Life on Earth has an innate drive to survive until tomorrow. At some point tomorrow becomes pointless and we relinquish our tenure among the living. This reality brings tears as write. My family, doctor, friends, and maybe even readers are not ready for me to relinquish. My wife sometimes thinks my nature niche articles are too personal but life on Earth is personal. We should not accept the commonly stated phrase, “Its business—it’s not personal.” Every action should be personal for protecting biodiversity and life of future generations instead of being self-centered.

I hope people recognize that trout eggs fanned under a trout and the fry we saw swimming nearby are as important as me. Each contributes to the quality to life for people, mottled sculpins fed on by trout, and the many invertebrates living in the stream. There is an unbroken stream of life dating back 3.5 billions years and in a short 300 years, we have dramatically reduced life on Earth with our increasing human numbers and need for chemicals to help us survive beyond Earth’s carrying capacity. We remain largely unaware of how chemicals used for our benefit impact lives in nature niches. They help us survive and increase our numbers. I could site many examples of how chemicals meant to help us have negative impacts on other life but Rachel Carson already did that in the book Silent Spring. She provides how their use has become dangerous to our own lives also and in some cases cause cancer.

As a generalist, I help specialists in their work and, through my nature niche, help people recognize the importance of how little known species are important to our lives. I discovered a beautiful red, tan, and black moth that a specialist described and named the Brilliant Virgin Tiger Moth (Grammia brillians). It is currently found in two protected National Parks and is one reason for us to maintain natural areas protected from chemicals and other human induced disruptions in the stream of life of one Earth.

Unfortunately, many everyday chemicals—like carbon—released by our excessively large human population, diminishes life of other creatures through things like climate change. It is imperative to recognize climate change impact and act on it before it acts on us. Our use of chemicals on crops and use of biologically modified organisms (BMO) should be used judiciously with awareness of effects on trout and our own future generations. In a previous article, I mentioned we could reduce our human population by 40 percent and our impacts on other organisms by having three generations per century instead of five. Waiting until we are in our 30s to have children instead of bearing children at 20 is a personal decision that can save the world. Think globally and act locally.

Important issues impacting sustainability of biodiversity and how we live are uncomfortable to consider because it hits close to home. Should we avoid heroic measures to save lives like mine with chemo or let life fade from physical presence? Which chemicals should we use in agriculture to sustain and increase our population at the expense of other life? We protect wilderness areas that contain species and ecological processes for comparison with heavily used areas but our chemicals have found them. They are reducing our libraries of healthy life. Even chemical intrusions into Isle Royale National Park wilderness are in higher concentrations in lakes there than in many human populated areas. Chemicals arrived with rain carried by air currents.

Though I am meandering, I hope to connect many of these pressing issues. You might have noticed there was no nature niche last week. I was too ill from chemo used to “help” keep me alive and productive to write. Normally I am able to continue my work. When my activities serve only me, I will be ready to relinquish my time on Earth. Fortunately, I am continuing to lead school field trips, working with college interns, physically work to guide habitat management at Ody Brook, and continue research to enrich the community of people and biodiversity. Trout are also doing their role, as is every species. The joint effort creates a healthy biosphere that supports all of us.

With great dismay, my physical and mental abilities are slowing, but fortunately, most are not lost. The oncologist told me I have not lost my competence. My thinking process is slowed by chemo use. Chemo treatments induced into me cause me to think about how fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and chemicals from household products reduce the abilities of trout, garden organisms, trees, insects and wildlife abilities to perform their roles well. We need to use some chemicals but society could live healthier and longer into the future by sustaining our population within Earth’s carrying capacity. Balancing the hard emotional questions with Star Trek’s “Spock-like” analytical reasoning brings together two realities for us to wrestle with daily. Applying the multiple realities of emotional desires with scientific reasoning to benefit a thousand future generations requires soul searching. A full, broad-based education is needed in addition to the specialized trade education most of us use to support our current family and generation. It is not easy and many choose to only address emotional and personal immediate family concerns instead of future generations or other life on Earth.

A healthy future depends on understanding the deeper meaning for how chemicals induced upon trout in nature niches and chemo is used in my individual struggle to survive. We all need to consider how chemicals are to sustain society and determine when too much will harm society. As I consider quitting chemo and relinquishing my continuing of service for life on Earth, I also think our excessive chemical use by society can cause us to relinquish life from a healthy future. Sorry, Karen, for sharing “too much” personal stuff; sorry Post for not being able to stay within article word limits; sorry that my efforts will someday end; but no apology for addressing the important issues of daily life we need to consider to help future generations thrive.

Continue to enjoy the wonder and joy of nature niches surrounding your home. Enhance conditions for life rather than unknowingly or knowingly diminishing life with poor choices of chemicals used in everyday products. Think Globally and Act Locally.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433, or call 616-696-1753.

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Those of the forest


By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

Following the life of Snowshoe, a hare, in the book Those of the Forest, is joy in discovering natural history without textbook dryness. The novel about the life and times of this northern Wisconsin animal describes ecology in an enjoyable manner and it applies to where we live.

Wallace Byron Grange published his book in 1956 and it continues to sell for good reason. The story is about the events in Snowshoe’s world and introduces the reader to animals, plants, weather, climate, geology, changing seasons, and how all are intricately intertwined. It is a fascinating excursion into nature niches.

The accuracy and depth of Grange’s content exposes the reader to ecology without bogging one down. It simply takes us with Snowshoe through the forest, fields, and wetlands. The journey describes real inhabitants and their behavior where Snowshoe works to survive and it applies to wild places near our homes. Descriptions of plant and animals associations create a mental image of the natural community for Those of the Forest. It heightens awareness of what we can discover when we explore outdoors and prepares us for spending time observing the real world though personal exploration with our families.

We live farther south than snowshoe hares but most characters in the book will be familiar neighbors. Amazing aspects of the occurrences from the distant universe and the sun are revealed in the lives of those that have come and gone over the ages of Earth’s history, in this one small locality where Snowshoe lives. The coming and going of glaciers shaped the land and set the stage for Those of the Forest during the past million years. Five billion years of formative history for life are portrayed in the lives of those in the story.

Habits of specific birds, mammals, insects, amphibians, snakes and others are woven together in a manner extraordinarily well. Whether it is obligate internal parasites or more casual parasites like mosquitoes, their role and impacts reveal the challenges living things struggle with daily. Hormone fluctuations and breeding behavior influenced by Earth’s movement around the sun are subtle and also drive Snowshoe’s color change from brown hair in summer to winters white.

I first the read the book in 1975 and have read it twice since. I have been careful not to reveal too much about Snowshoe’s experiences that could spoil the novel’s story. Re-reading is like watching a good movie repeatedly to discover new details missed during previous viewings. It will be helpful to have flower, tree, insect, bird, and mammal field guides or computer apps at hand to look up species that you might not know. I led a walk at Ody Brook Sanctuary this week and introduced participants to new unknown wildflowers and it provided a similar thrill of reading about the many species encountered when reading Those of the Forest. The book will undoubtedly introduce some unfamiliar species and details of their lives.

Search the Internet for the title or author and enjoy reading this summer. Best of all, it will help you discover nature niches when you take your own outdoor explorations.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433 or call 616-696-1753.

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Bird migration safe passage


By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

Birds are migrating from wintering grounds to breeding grounds. High mortality occurs. It is a challenging endeavor for few ounce birds to fly from South America, Central America, or southern North America to Michigan or places farther north. Those surviving hopefully have success raising enough young to replace those lost during the year.

If enough young survive to replace those lost, the population remains stable. More surviving means the population increases. In the second half of the 20th century and early 21st century, many species have been unable to successfully keep up with mortality rates.

Many species are in decline and some are in great decline. Some causes are clear while others are not fully explained. Outdoor cats kill about one billion birds annually in the United States. It affects bird species survival but humans are reluctant to keep cats indoors. For a century, radio towers have been known as death traps for migrating birds. Cell tower abundance has increased the death hazard. Human convenience takes priority over sustaining Earth’s biodiversity.

In an effort to reduce cell tower deaths, varied plans are being tested with some success. One test used white lights on towers at night instead of red, and it was showing promise. In a wealthy West Michigan community, there were complaints that white lights at night were too bright, so the red lights were used again. The stewardship value of saving migrating birds was not as important as our human desire to have seasonally red tower lights in spring and fall.

Light from tall buildings draws birds to their death. To reduce mortality, lights above the second floor can be turned off or windows darkened with shades during spring and fall migration. The safe travel initiative can save birds and perhaps species. Encourage businesses and high rise apartment buildings to turn off lights or shade window at night above the end floor to save energy and species. Building collisions are most frequent on foggy nights. Several cities have adopted “Safe Travel” initiatives.

Windmill energy production holds promise for reducing dependence on fossil fuels that cause habitat loss through climate change. Migrating birds collide with wind towers but placement location can reduce problems. Choosing the safest long-term energy production challenges society. Carbon release causes habitat alterations that are economically, socially, and environmentally destructive for future human and wildlife populations. Many problems are evident at present.

It appears wind energy might be preferable provided windmills are properly placed away from primary migration routes. Birds have their own super highways in the sky similar to human expressways. Towers along heavily used lakeshore areas and choice travel routes can be avoided. Local Township and city planners largely determine site selection. Appropriate human behavior for sharing living space with other life forms can ensure healthy nature niches remain for our children’s children.

Increasing human abundance is rapidly eliminating living space for other life forms. If people wait until they are in their 30’s to bear children, we would have three generations per century instead of five caused by having children at age twenty. It would reduce the world population by 40 percent by having two generations instead of five living at the same time. Spacing of human generations would benefit migrating birds and result in less human crowding, social strife, wars, and natural resource conflicts.

For the present enjoy bird migration and participate in the Bird Migration Count on the 2nd Saturday of May annually. Count birds in your yard or larger area. Add your observations of bird locations for the continent on one specific day. To participate in Kent County contact Steve Minard by e-mailing him at sdminard@gmail.com or call 616-942-7165. Count day is May 9 this year.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433 or call 616-696-1753.

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Reader’s genocide concern

By Ranger Steve Mueller


Recently a reader expressed dismay with efforts to remove Mute Swans from the lake where he lives. The exotic swans cause problems and death for native ducks and geese by preventing their nesting. I know of at least one instance where a Mute Swan killed an elderly man in his boat. Mute swans compete with native Trumpeter Swans being restored in the Great Lakes ecosystem where this native species was near extinction.

The reader told me that management to safeguard native ecosystem species is genocide of Mute swans. I stated that exotic Mute Swans of European origin are causing genocide of native wildlife populations. Wildlife biologists are working to prevent genocide of native species. He said he is also of European origin and killing exotic swans equates with killing people of European origin that settled North America.

I commented that social and political aspects for sustaining native ecosystems are often driven by emotions and/or short-term personal and economic interest instead of ecological health. We were present for a conservation fundraising banquet and the program was about to begin. We did not get to continue the conversation. I would like to know how he felt regarding efforts to kill and eliminate other exotics species that cause ecological and economic havoc in native community nature niches.

Environmental groups and governmental units are working to prevent Asian Carp from entering the Great Lakes where they will cause major economic, ecological and genocide problems for native species and will result in billions of dollars in environmental damage. Exotic species replace native plant and animal species and reduce biodiversity. Native species eliminated by exotic species is also genocide. Human efforts strive to protect native species evolved in ecosystems from genocide caused by exotic species. Native species help maintain the “Triple Bottom Line” of social, economic, and ecological integrity of the natural world that sustains our human culture.

We often choose beauty over ecological value. Purple Loosestrife is a beautiful exotic plant in wetlands that eliminates food and habitat for native species. Like the Mute Swan, its beauty makes it difficult for us to want it removed. The tall feathery seed headed grass called Phragmites (Common Reed) is replacing cattails and associated native wetland birds, mammals, insects, and plants. Removal of native species by Phragmites disrupts nutrient cycles and energy flow in ecosystems essential for sustaining breeding habitat or fish, birds, mammals, insects, and other life forms. Many eliminated native species have direct economic and social importance for human communities and businesses.

Many exotics lack the emotional appeal of Mute Swans and might fail to raise the genocide concern of the reader that spoke with me. Zebra Mussels cost Grand Rapids millions to prevent clogging of water intake pipes in Lake Michigan. I wonder if the reader is concerned about mussel genocide.

Exotics like Gypsy Moth, Quaga Mussels, Garlic Mustard, Emerald Ash Borer, Autumn Olive, Oriental Bittersweet, and swallow-wort are more than direct economic problems. They cause ecological disruptions and genocide in native plant and animal communities. Most exotic species arrive accidentally. We have quarantine inspectors working 24/7 to safe guard our livelihoods by preventing additional exotic species from disrupting native communities, agricultural timber, and food crops.

Exotic Garlic Mustard pulls are sponsored to prevent it from causing genocide to native wildflowers, associated insects, birds, and mammal that evolved locally over expansive time. How should we address difficult issues? “Triple Bottom Line” management addressing social-economic-ecological problems becomes a means for maintaining and sustaining a healthy society.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433 or 616-696-1753.

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Wildland Conservation Organizations

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller


Organizations with focused visions target specific conservation initiatives for wildlife and plant communities. We cannot care for species or natural communities important to human survival without knowing about native species and their function in nature.

Too often we have constructed buildings and filled floodplains that caused increased flooding of residences and business downstream. We have placed drain tiles in areas to increase tillable farmland and caused increased flooding of homes and businesses downstream. In addition to personal loss for owners downstream, it costs taxpayers twice when money is used to subsidize agricultural tiling and wetland draining for community development in areas that should remain natural. Secondly, government funding often provides money to help families flooded out of their homes or businesses.

Knowledgeable zoning commissions and community members could avoid the economic and personal trauma of loss with increased ecological understanding of nature niches. Too often contractors have been allowed to fill and build where it is not safe for downstream residents.

To gain an ecological intelligence, it is first important to have enjoyable experiences in the outdoors when growing up to discover the wonders of the surrounding world. Once we begin to discover biodiversity by exposing family, friends and members to outdoor experiences, we will likely become interested in the landscape that secures economic and living safety for our families. That knowledge could guide us to become what used to be called conservationists and has become known as environmentalists.

Exposure in the nature broadens our experience to a holistic understanding for how humans interact and with the natural world. Many organizations provide outings and opportunities to learn nature and the species that live in association with our yards. Too often we spend money to destroy and eliminate important species that keep our yards healthy functioning components of a neighborhood. Healthy stewardship of our yards could preserve multitudes of species that are killed when we try to eliminate a few species we perceive as harmful to us or vegetable gardens.

What are these organizations? Individual articles detailing each organization could be written but here they are simply listed. Hopefully some will peek interest and you will search the Internet to learn more. Many have frequent meetings and field trips for learning, sharing, and becoming knowledgeable about ecological stewardship in our yards to improve family security, joy, and quality of life.

Local Organizations: River City Wild Ones, Land Conservancy of West Michigan, Grand Rapids Audubon, White Pine Chapter of Michigan Botanical Club, Trout Unlimited, Dwight Lydell Chapter of Isaac Walton League, Michigan Audubon, West Michigan Butterfly Association (WMBA), Michigan Entomological Society, West Michigan Environmental Action Council, Master Naturalists and Master Gardeners programs through MSU Kent County Extension, and Groundswell & its community partners, Sierra Club. This is not a complete list but it provides connections associated with mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibian, fish, insects, plants, outdoor experiences as well as broad natural community health initiatives.

Learning Centers: Blandford Nature Center, Howard Christensen Nature Center, Wittenbach/Wege Agri-science and Environmental Education Center, Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve, Outdoor Discovery Center, Fredrick Meijer Gardens, and Public Museum of Grand Rapids.

Regional organizations: City, Twp, County, State, and National Parks. National Audubon, Defender’s of Wildlife, North American Butterfly Association, Lepidopterists Society that supports local youth science training with Outer-net Kits through WMBA, National Wildlife Federation and its associated Michigan United Conservation Clubs.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433, 616-696-1753

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Slip off Slope

By Ranger Steve Mueller

By Ranger Steve Mueller

Rivers slip off slopes and create cut banks. Rivers, streams and brooks move from side to side to create cut banks and slip-off-slopes that become important habitats for wildlife and plants. The movement of stream channels creates unique nature niche environments.

Belted Kingfishers use cut banks for excavating deep tunnels where they nests. Marsh marigolds flower on slip-off-slopes. Slip-off-slopes floodplains retain water that reduces flooding of homes downstream.

A stream or river channel is the trough filled with flowing water. It cuts deeper every season, decade, century, and millennium. The work is slow but not steady. In spring after heavy rains or snowmelt, channel cutting increases. Once the river valley did not exist and the land was nearly level with the surrounding landscape. Following glacial retreat, water flowed to lower areas and began moving particles. Continued flow cut deeper into the landscape creating river valleys.

When water meets an obstacle like a tree or rock, it is diverted sideways and cuts into the opposite bank of the channel creating a cut bank. What was a straight flowing stream forms a meander. Bank undercutting creates hidden hollows where fish hide. Meanders become larger loops but the stream channel width normally remains about the same size. If it was 3-foot wide or 30-foot wide, the size does not change significantly.

Where the stream cuts into a bank along the outer edge of a meander, water flows faster with greater force. On the inside of the channel’s meander, water moves more slowly and drops sediment. It creates shallower water in the process of filling the channel on that side. As the cut bank is eroded on one side, a new wetland known as a slip-off-slope floodplain is formed on the other. The slip-off-slope is named because the river channel is actually slipping off the streambed as it creates new land. The opposite shore can have a nearly vertical bank. It might only be a foot or two high or almost 100 feet. Over time the river moves back and forth across the river valley.

This can be observed along the Grand River, Rogue River, and even Little Cedar Creek. At Ody Brook, the stream valley is about as wide as a football field is long. In Grand Rapids, roads climb slopes of the Grand River’s cut bank toward the Medical Mile to the east and to the west on I-196 west from US 131. Where the Grand River channel flows through town, we have worked to stop the sideway meandering by constructing concrete walls.

To protect businesses and homes on the slip-off-slope floodplain, it was necessary to prevent stream movement back and forth. One can observe more natural slip-off-slope wetland communities at places like Millennium Park. Ody Brook is a headwater for Little Cedar Creek that feeds Cedar Creek, Rogue River, and Grand River. Upstream from Ody Brook, the channel is dry in August but water flows year around at Ody Brook because springs seep from the cut bank maintaining continuous flow.

Even this small watercourse channel that is 4 to 5 feet wide and usually a few inches deep has cut a valley about 12 feet deep and about 300 feet wide. During flooding as water flows through the wetland forest, the current is slowed and drops rich fertile sediment nourishing floodplain communities.

Mouse “houses” and low bird nests get washed away during high water and minks visit more frequently. Failed nests require adults to rebuild, bare new young or lay replacement eggs. Mice trapped on floodplain islands swim to higher ground. It is not just people that construct homes in locations prone to flooding.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433, or call 616-696-1753.

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