By Ranger Steve Mueller
Deep within tree and shrub canopy some birds sing to announce their presence without exposing themselves to predators. Gray tree frogs sing from obscure shrub branches and hidden crevasses of house siding. Chipmunks cluck from logs and red squirrels chatter on needle-filled pine branches.
Many of us have experienced a stern scolding from a red squirrel when we entered what it considers its territory. Animals lay claim to territorial space in order to establish adequate room for rearing a family. The living space might provide essential food, water, and shelter but maybe not. Protected territory space does not always meet basic needs for survival.
That is fine for some species because space needed for family raising is different from where they acquire food and water during the breeding season. They leave a smaller size nesting “territory” to feed in social groups or to visit convenient watering areas in “home range” space.
Common Grackles and Red-winged Blackbirds gather in feeding groups within inches of one another but will not tolerate such closeness in nesting territory. At nesting sites, larger territories are guarded by singing males. Even females have territories. Not all species behave in this manner.
Gulls, terns, swallows and several other species nest in close proximity to one another. There are advantages and disadvantages for colonial nesting. Isolation is important for the hidden singers.
Colorful warblers, thrushes, chickadees, sparrows, finches and many others need isolated hidden locations to successfully raise a family. Many do not succeed with difficult challenge. Singing from a hidden podium offers protection from predators when birds claim breeding territories. Sometimes the danger from predators is not significant but breeding song still comes from among the thickness of leaves.
It is nearly impossible to see other birds of their own species in the thick of the woods. Searching every tree and shrub for intruders would take time away from gathering food and courting. Instead, each species has a unique song to sing from hidden locations to warn others “this space is taken.” When one dares challenge the boundary, the resident will hear the song and travel to oust a space competitor.
Territorial singing is most prevalent early in the day. Birds patrol their boundary singing from hidden locations. Sound travels well through the canopy where sight is limited. In addition to sound being an important territorial marker, color is important when the birds see one another. When seen, particular colors might make birds see “Red” in the case of another male and causes them to defend a territory. The beautiful flash of color patterns owned by many birds are also used to woo a mate.
Singing from a hidden location can protect nature niche food, water, and shelter during family upbringing from others of the same species. Once appropriate space is established, the bird can display its flamboyance to a resident female.
Great variety of species behaviors fill habitats. The Red-winged Blackbird does not sing from a hidden place. Instead it stands bold on a cattail in an open marsh. Explore and witness over 300 species of birds in unique Great Lakes ecosystem habitats and their diverse behaviors.
Listen and enjoy the hidden sounds of nature even when you do not get to enjoy seeing the maker.
Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at firstname.lastname@example.org – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.