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Archive | Ranger Steve’s Nature Niche

Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary expansion

 

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

 

Walk Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary with the Michigan Botanical Club on September 13 at 2 p.m. or with the River City Wild Ones on Sept 20 at 1:30. The local conservation clubs will explore the sanctuary in search for plants, animals, and their ecological requirements while enjoying the company of nature enthusiasts.

This will be a great introduction to a couple different nature clubs and great people where many will share their knowledge and excitement for things natural and wild.

Ody Brook is managed to enhance nature’s biodiversity to support a healthy and sustainable human community. The sanctuary is located in the headwaters for Little Cedar Creek south of Cedar Springs on Northland Drive across the road from V&V Nursery. Come explore nature and meet nature enthusiasts from local conservation groups.

Meet and park at V&V Nursery. Spend some time at the nursery considering fall selection specials on plants prior to winter dormancy. V&V Nursery helps area residents beautify yards and lives. We will start the field trips from the nursery parking area. We appreciate V&V’s willingness to allow parking. Parking space is not available at Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary.

Over 116 bird species, 24 mammals, 11 herps and 52 butterfly species have been documented along with 250 species of plants. Dragonflies dart with beauty as they feed on aerial insects. They lay eggs in Little Cedar Creek where naiads spend months to years growing to the adult stage. Trout feed and utilize the headwaters in spring.

We will encounter other beautiful insects that are active in the fall. Snowy Tree Crickets, katydids, beetles, colorful flies, and various true bugs are expected. This is an opportunity to view a variety of life and to receive help with identification.

Fall flowers provide nutrition for wildlife while plants focus on seed production for their own species survival. Come learn to recognize plant families and species common to our neighborhoods. Both field trips will be fun enriching afternoons for families. Come for a short stay or for an hour and a half.

Trails lead around a pond, through the floodplain, over bridges crossing the creek and through upland field and forest. Wear long sleeved shirts and pants to protect legs. Good footwear is recommended. If it rains prior to field trip days, the floodplain may be wet and somewhat muddy.

The sanctuary recently expanded to 54 acres and protects the creek headwaters leading to Cedar Creek, Rogue River, Grand River, and Lake Michigan. This is a great open house opportunity to explore Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary’s expansion. The privately owned and managed sanctuary accepts donation support and welcomes scheduled visits.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. 616-696-1753.

 

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Special everyday sightings

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

 

Celebrate special opportunities. Today I was sitting on the back porch, when I would rather walk trails and explore Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary nature niches.

It was a comfortable 77 F. The sunshine felt too hot. A flycatcher landed on a dead tree branch and it was difficult to identify the species. I thought it was in the Empidonax flycatcher group that has several look-a-like species. To separate species vocal calls or songs are required.

I narrowed the choices to Alder Flycatcher or Least Flycatcher but finally decided I was still wrong. It was most likely not an Empidonax species but an Eastern Wood-Peewee. It did not have an obvious white eye-ring. Wing bars were faint. Its behavior of perching, flitting out to prey on insects, and then return to the perch is typical for peewees. I usually expect the peewees to be in the dense forest but this one found the forest opening good for hunting.

While contemplating the flycatcher identification, a Cooper’s Hawk flew through the backyard about six feet above ground. It was in view for only a few seconds. Its size was too big for the look-a-like Sharp-shinned Hawk and it had a rounded tail instead of being squared off. I enjoy a visit to the yard by the bird eating hawks. They are seldom successful in capturing a meal.

I rejoice with them when they succeed in filling their stomach or get food to feed their young. They are a natural and healthy component in nature niches. Predators prevent other species from over abundance whether they are insect predators, bird predators, or mammal predators. I take sorrow in the death of birds, butterflies, or creatures I work to support with food, water, and shelter. Life is not easy for any creature but each has it place. Predators are welcome.

Despite my sorrow in one creature’s death, I celebrate the continued life of another. Unfortunately, several species native to other parts of the world have established in our area and are disrupting ecosystems, causing the death of species, and causing millions of dollars in damage to crops, landscapes, and species we cherish.

A Pileated Woodpecker flew over, brightened my day and was quickly followed by another that called as it passed. It was my birthday and I pretended it was wishing me a fine day. I am pleased my efforts over 35 years have created conditions for life. I reap benefits and joys of nature in the yard daily.

Closer to the ground level Giant Swallowtail, Red-spotted Purple butterfly, Cabbage White, and Clouded Sulphur butterflies traversed yard openings. A Pearl Crescent landed on the dog. I spend the most time watching birds and butterflies, but in late summer, dragonflies like meadowhawks are abundant. Grasshopper populations are peaking and provide energy for birds getting ready to migrate.

Many people do not approve of Cooper’s Hawks filling their stomach with birds, but the same people have no objection to insect eating birds killing and eating their prey. If managed ideally, our yards will provide healthy conditions for a balanced biodiversity that supports life forms including all predators.

Sit, observe and celebrate occurrences of minute to large wildlife in your neighborhood.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. 616-696-1753.

 

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Missing feathers

 

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

Finding pretty feathers in the yard is something most of us have collected when we were children. It has been fun and challenging to identify who lost them. Blue Jay feathers are quite distinctive as are robin breast feathers. Many feathers can be quite challenging.

At this time of year I notice crows flying over with noticeable gaps in their wings. Two Mourning Doves passed without their long tail feathers. Some birds are looking rather beat up because they are missing feathers. It is molting season.

Most birds experience a complete molt where they lose all feathers after breeding season and before migration. It requires a lot of energy to change wardrobes but it occurs twice a year. The spring molt prior to migration or breeding is a partial molt where only some feathers are replaced.

When birds fly over missing noticeable feathers, it is the flight feathers we notice missing. If birds lost all there their flight feathers at once they would be grounded. That would spell death for many. They would starve before they could replace them. They also would not be protected from the weather. Feathers are important for flight and body feathers for insulation to maintain proper temperature.

Molting is orderly starting with primary feathers. Theses are the largest and most noticeable flight feathers. They are lost in succession from wingtip inward. As one is lost and replaced, the next one in succession is lost and replaced. When the primary feathers have been replaced, secondary feathers are replaced in the opposite direction. Secondaries are smaller flight feathers closer to the body. They are lost from close to the body outward toward the primaries.

It is ecologically important that most birds lose feathers in succession so they do not become flightless. They depend on flight for feeding mobility. Some birds lose all their flight feathers at once and cannot fly for weeks. One might think this would surely cause starvation or vulnerability to predators.

Ducks, geese, swans, grebes, and loons lose their flight feather at one time. They feed by diving or tipping bottom up to feed on the bottom in shallow water. Tipping end up to feed is known as dabbling. There are dabbing ducks like the mallard and diving ducks like the bufflehead and scaup that dive deep to feed. They become flightless for several weeks when molting but are able to continue feeding. When threatened they run across the water but do not become airborne.

It requires tremendous energy to molt. When birds migrate there energy needs increase 7 to 15 times over resting energy levels. They cannot afford to molt, migrate, or raise young at the same time. Each must be done separately and they have adaptations to survive in their unique nature niche. Loons molt after migration and ducks before migration. Some birds have a partial molt before migration, stop molting for migration and complete molting afterwards. It is typical for most land birds to complete molting before the fall migration.

Details of life are uniquely special and worth observing near our homes.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433.

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Quiet—not Absent

By Ranger Steve Mueller

I am not one to sit. I like moving. Outdoor activity is either walking, working on trail maintenance, pruning trees and shrubs, pursing butterflies, birds, or other animals. Three days ago, I broke my leg while walking in uneven ground, in search of wetland butterflies. I fell in a hidden hole. Yesterday the surgeon installed a metal plate in my leg and said I cannot put any weight on my leg for six weeks.

I have been sitting on the back porch and noticing things that are missed daily because I move about too much. For two days I have been seeing Baltimore Orioles moving among the tree branches. A Great Flycatcher quietly landed in a tree in good view. A flock of Cedar Waxwings has been flitting about the conifer branches and I haven’t been noticing them. I have not seen any of these species lately.

Now that breeding season is mostly over, males are not singing to claim territory. It is easy not to notice the birds as they search for food. This evening a Ruby-throated hummingbird visited flowers in the butterfly garden in preference to the sugar water feeder that hangs in the garden. The hummer was actively feeding on minute insects that were flying just above treetops. I could not see the insects but the bird was clearly picking things out of sky as it hovered and darted back and forth.

Family flocks of American Robins have been feeding on creatures in the mowed lawn. Mourning Doves are one of the few birds still vocalizing with their owl-like coo-coo call. They are a bird that may still breed and produce young this late in the year.

Chickadees are not singing their two note song but like me they are contently on the move and do vocalize their chickadee-dee-dee call. I answer with my own version of their call and they come to see who is talking to them. House wrens sing continuously in spring and early summer but now only make a twittering chat.

Eastern Towhees are secretive and spend time under trees and shrubs scratching among the ground vegetation in search of tasty insects morsels. They have not completely given up their song of “drink your teaeeeee.” I still here the “your teaeeee” coming from hidden locations.

Most birds are busy in their specialized nature niches fattening for the long journey south, teaching young by demonstration, or working hard in preparation to survive locally for the winter.

The House Finches have males with red feathers on the head and body but females are brown. At the feeder this week there is a male House Finch with yellow instead of red feathers. I see a few of these annually. Studies indicate that those birds are lacking adequate carotene in their diet to provide the red in feathers. The birds are apparently healthy but display the abnormal coloring. The carotene generally comes from insects that are fed upon.

Now that I am required to sit and watch, I see things I normally miss by being too antsy to quietly sit and observe. I miss being on the move constantly but enjoy getting to see backyard wildlife activity that is quietly going about business in abundance. Don’t break a leg but sit to observe activity in the yard.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433.

616-696-1753

 

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Squirrel watching

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

 

When in middle school, we had open lunch period. That meant we could leave campus, venture outside and return for afternoon classes. I usually headed outside with a sandwich. Sometimes the break was spent with friends behind the school or, during other lunch periods, I quietly spent it with squirrels a block from school.

The school was in a city of 100,000 people where many nature niches provided for wild creature needs. Gray and Fox squirrels did well in people’s forested yards. Fox squirrels have reddish hairs mixed among their tail hairs and their bellies are reddish/orange giving them the name “Fox.” Gray squirrels have white bellies with gray hairs dominating their body and tails.

Recently, readers have provided squirrel images with white tails or white patches on the head. I suspect these are natural genetic variations. Black squirrels are less common than normal colored gray and fox squirrels. The black is a recessive genetic trait that requires a black hair color gene from each parent for it to be expressed in young.

In people brown eyes dominant over blue so if one parent provides a brown gene and the other a blue gene, the child’s eye color would be brown. A blue gene is required from both parents to have a blue-eyed child. A brown-eyed person often carries a hidden blue-eyed gene. Eye color inheritance is not as simple as stated above because there are many color and shade options that are inherited.

In squirrels the expressed hair color is simpler than eye color but has genetic variability. Black squirrels became common in the Traverse City area in part because gray squirrels were shot and black squirrels were allowed to reproduce. A squirrel parent can produce both gray and black phase young in the same litter. It is much like a person having children with different hair color. An abundance of black recessive genes in that population allowed the black phase gray squirrels to become common because gray genes were deliberately removed from the population.

Black squirrels have become increasing common in our area. I am not sure why. Black phase is more common among gray squirrels than it is in Fox squirrels but they also have a black phase. Black fox squirrels are more frequent in the southern United States than in Michigan. Again I am not sure why. Perhaps some scientists have addressed the question but I have not encountered explanations.

I have enjoyed squirrels and have been frustrated with how much birdseed they eat. The numbers of squirrels in yards sometimes seems endless. When I lived in Minnesota, a neighbor and his son shot 24 squirrels in their yard during one day. Across the street from our homes was a cemetery with an oak forest. The cemetery provided adequate food, water, shelter, and appropriate living space for squirrels. The squirrels found it easy to visit the neighbor’s feeders for food. They also probably ate many bird eggs. Too many individuals of any species create ecosystem problems.

My fascination with squirrels and their behavior began when I was in junior high during quiet lunch periods watching them busily go about squirrel business in yards that people thought were human yards. Like humans, squirrels stake claims on territories. They do not recognize our property lines but set up their own according to the amount of space necessary to meet survival needs.

Encourage children to spend time observing, connecting, and understanding wild creatures in “our yards.”

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. 616-696-1753.

 

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Ruby-throated Hummingbirds

*OUT-Nature niche Ruby throat hummer65By Ranger Steve Mueller

 
A Ruby-throated Hummingbird claimed the backyard, sugar water feeder, garden, and surrounding woodland for the summer. It is a joy to sit on the back porch and watch it hover at the feeder and to sometimes see it perch for a drink. Soon it will head south for wintering grounds in Central America. They return to breeding grounds starting in April and begin leaving during August. Place feeders out early and keep them filled through September or into October. Migrating hummers may stop for lunch.

Hummingbirds are unable to walk. Their short legs are only good for perching on branches. Other movement is by amazing wing power. It is reported by Michigan Audubon that they beat wings 53 times a second. It is only a blur to my eyes.

In the backyard I planted an ash tree about 30 years ago. It has provided a good perching for many birds. Its open canopy allows filtered light to pass and does not create deep shade. Birds have found it good for gleaning insects from among the foliage. Unfortunately the exotic Emerald Ash Borer beetle grubs are killing it. It is making a valiant effort to stay alive but the canopy is sparse with branches almost bare.

The hummingbird chooses perches high in the tree and darts to the feeder. It flies in an arc when departing for unknown places in the woods. I glance into the tree every time I venture outside and often see the bird. Hummingbirds are not tolerant of others wanting to visit a feeder. Males especially dive toward other hummers that come to drink sugar water.

The male Ruby-throated Hummingbird has what appears to be a black throat until sunlight turns it to glistening ruby. Even its green back shines with brilliance in sunlight. Its tiny body is about the size of the large grasshopper or cicada. The long slightly down curved bill is nearly as long as the body.

One time I was able to watch a mother incubate two tiny miniature jellybean sized eggs. Other times when young were present, the parent feed them frequently. I watched the long thin bill enter the baby mouths and penetrated all the way to the stomach. It seemed as if the mother was going to pierce a hole in her young. She knows how to feed and care for young. My help with care giving is not welcome but I provide healthy habitat where they find wildflowers, sugar water, and have nesting trees. Food, water, shelter, with appropriate living space are my contribution.

The yard is a mix of open sunny areas with wildflowers, shrubland, and mature trees. Somewhere among tree branches, a nest is woven from spider silk, dandelion or thistle down, and lichens that camouflage the nest. The tiny nest is placed on top of an outer branch. Usually the nest is toward the end of the branch and is only as wide as the branch or slightly wider. Two eggs are laid in the tiny cup and fill its minute space. Hummingbirds have let me know when I am near a nest. When walking, a mother has come and hovered near me and it alerted me to look about. Their irritation with my presence helped me find and observe nests on several occasions.

No nests have been seen at Ody Brook. I suspect the nests are constructed high in a tree. Hummingbirds have a special nature niche that brings joy to my life.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. 616-696-1753.

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Newaygo Butterfly Count

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

 

The Newaygo Butterfly Count was held in the Manistee National Forest on July 11, 2014 between 9 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. Thirty-two species with 221 individuals were observed. Table 1 lists butterflies and the number sighted for each species. There was a slight breeze with good sunlight during both morning and afternoon. The temperature was between 70 to 82 F. It is always a pleasant day to be exploring nature niches with others. Everyone notices things of interest to share from flowers, trees, birds, mammals, and more. Though our focus was butterflies, we take time to enjoy the natural wonders around us. Consider contacting me if you would to participate next year. Other counts in the area you might enjoy include the Allegan State Game Area, Muskegon State Game Area, and Rogue River State Game Area counts.

 

Rogue River Butterfly Count Sightings

Spicebush Swallowtail – 1

Cabbage White – 3

Clouded Sulphur -2

Orange Sulphur – 1

American Copper – 6

Coral Hairstreak – 26

Banded Hairstreak – 9

Edward’s Hairstreak – 9

Gray Hairstreak – 2

Eastern Tailed blue – 4

Karner Blue Butterfly – 9

Great Spangled Fritillary – 5

Aphrodite Fritillary – 1

Eastern Comma – 1

American Lady – 7

Red Admiral – 3

Red-spotted Purple – 3

Northern Pearly Eye – 2

Appalachian Brown – 20

Little Wood Satyr – 8

Common Wood Nymph – 30

Monarch – 6

Silver-spotted Skipper – 2

Tawny-edged Skipper – 2

Little Glassywing – 2

Northern Broken Dash – 29

Delaware Skipper – 3

Crossline Skipper – 2

Dion Skipper – 1

Least Skipper – 1

Dun – 21

 

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. 616-696-1753.

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Rogue River Butterfly Count

The Rogue River Butterfly Count was held on July 5, 2014 between 9 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. There was a light breeze with good sunlight to stimulate butterfly activity, and the temperature warmed from 62 to 80 F. Thirty-two species with 239 individuals were seen. Review the species listing and number of each species seen. Consider joining us next year for a fun day and to develop your skills for identifying species in your neighborhood and yard. Consider contacting me to join the West Michigan Butterfly Association to explore butterfly nature niches. Our membership fee is $5.

 

Rogue River Butterfly Count Sightings

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail – 2

Spicebush Swallowtail – 3

Cabbage White – 10

Clouded Sulphur – 60

Orange Sulphur – 2

Acadian Hairstreak – 1

Banded Hairstreak – 6

Edward’s Hairstreak – 2

Coral Hairstreak – 7

Eastern Tailed blue – 4

Summer Azure – 3

Great Spangled Fritillary – 1

Greater Fritillary species – 4

Aphrodite Fritillary – 1

Baltimore Checkerspot – 2

Question Mark – 2

Eastern Comma – 2

Mourning Cloak – 7

American Lady – 3

Red-spotted Purple – 1

Northern Pearly Eye – 6

Eyed Brown – 1

Appalachian Brown – 4

Brown satyr species – 1

Little Wood Satyr – 15

Common Wood Nymph – 5

Monarch – 1

European Skipper – 51

Tawny-edged Skipper – 3

Little Glassywing – 3

Northern Broken Dash – 15

Delaware Skipper – 6

Hobomok Skipper – 1

Black Dash – 1

 

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at the odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433. 616-696-1753.

 

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Live On Friendly Terms

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

One of my early poems expresses thoughts I maintain today.

 

I cannot say I am educated

because I know plants

in the wild.  When I know

them on friendly terms, I

will not need to say I’m

educated for the wise will know

and others, well they won’t care. – October 13, 1974

 

When you encounter plants in your yard it is not necessary to know its name to appreciate its beauty or presence. It can help if you want help maintain healthy nature niches. Knowing the plants to remove so native species can thrive will better maintain soil health and species diversity.

Many non-native species crowd out native species that maintain soil health or help native animals survive. The exotic Emerald Ash Borer has cost Michigan’s economy ten of millions of dollars in economic loss in ten years and it continues to devastate ash tree populations. It is reducing moth, butterfly, bee, and many other insect populations that are important to birds for feeding young.

Knowing plants on friendly term suggests we take responsibility for our actions and cause no harm. A principal for doctors is to cause no harm. That is easier said than done. Medicines often cause harm but hopefully do more good than harm as they help us recover from variously ailments.

When we remove plants from the landscape to construct homes we do harm. How we manage the remaining yard can allow native plants to thrive. Those plants are better at supplying needs for native mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, insect and other species than non-natives.

We can learn to live to with nature and in nature niches. Many of our activities work to separate us from nature and eliminate nature niches. Manicured lawns are non-native plants that preclude most native species from surviving.

We maintain some lawn around the house and have mowed trails through our Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary but most of the property and been allowed to revert to native nature niches to maintain healthy biodiversity. The mowed lawn looks nice and keeps mosquitoes away from the house so we can sit comfortably on the porch.

Beyond the lawn, the yard is bustling with birds feeding on insects in knee high wildflowers, shrubland, and forest. The yard is alive with sound, visual beauty, wild activity and enriches our lives and the lives of other species.

I have documented about 250 species of plants here with many more to be discovered. I have overlooked a Wafer-ash growing here that my friend Chip Francke noticed this week. It added a species to my list but it is also a food plant for the Giant Swallowtail Butterfly and probably other species.

Over 100 bird, 24 mammal, 11 herps, 51 butterfly species have been documented along many other species. Many creatures that share our yards and I think it wise for more of us transform part of our yards to wild nature niches.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433.  616-696-1753.

 

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Ranger Steve’s Nature Niche

Isle Royale Discoveries

OUT-RangerSteveMuellerTime in nature niches has rewards. It allows our minds to free from daily pressures, provides healthy exercise, time with family and friends, and a chance to interact with nature.

When I leave work and home for wild places, it takes three days to stop thinking about work needs and tasks. Getting away from home allows freedom from projects waiting there.

Mogens Nielsen found a Northern Blue Butterfly at Isle Royale National Park but little was known about it besides it was the first known presence in Michigan. Another flew over the Wisconsin/Michigan border in Dickinson County. Later I discovered a healthy colony in Alger County while conducting rare plants studies in the Upper Peninsula with Dr. Tony Reznicek, from the University of Michigan Herbarium and Don Henson.

Tony suddenly called out, “Look what I found.” He discovered a plant species not documented for Michigan. It was dwarf bilberry in the blueberry family. I immediately called, “Look what I found.” I was focused on butterflies instead of plants and caught a Northern Blue Butterfly. I found a colony with many and this was the first known colony for Michigan.

The Michigan DNR immediately listed both plant and butterfly as Threatened Species and provided me a life history research grant to study the butterfly species. I later collected its larvae on the plant species Tony discovered. The newly known butterfly larvae use that plant as a food plant. We discovered two species with ecological nature niche connections on the same day.

My research took me to various locations where Don Henson found additional colonies of the plant. I was looking for more Northern Blue colonies. The research also took me to Isle Royale NP to where Mo had found the first Northern Blue in Michigan. I wrote an extensive report of my research for the DNR but the rest of this article is unrelated with other discoveries at Isle Royale.

The park provided me with a collecting permit to document new species in the park during my research on the Northern Blue. I discovered two butterflies species not documented for the park. They were the Common Wood Nymph and the Bog Copper.

Unfortunately, those specimens were set aside and forgotten until this year. I was reviewing my research journals and saw a note to myself stating “species to be listed later.” I quickly looked in my collection database and saw they were not listed there either. I went to my specimen collection and found them waiting to be processed. I called the national park to inform them of the long overdue discovery report. It has been 25 years but the species were still unknown for the park. Arrangements have been made to place them in the Michigan State University collection as scientific proof of presence at Isle Royale NP.

The park resource manager requested specific collection locations. I provided details. The park service cannot protect or understand the ecological nature niches without knowing the species that live there. The plants, mammal, bird, insect, and other species lists continue to grow. Geology, climate and air quality studies monitor the environment for comparison with our modified human communities. The data helps us understand things that degrade our health and living conditions so we can protect society’s health for present and future generations.

Most of us go to national parks to refresh our spirits, physical health and souls. Parks provide society with much more to help sustain our culture’s social, environmental, economic health.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net Ody Brook, 13010 Northland Dr, Cedar Springs, MI 49319-8433.  616-696-1753.

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