web analytics

Archive | Outdoors

Arrowhead Spiketail Life Cycle

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

Flying rapidly close to the surface of shallow water in Little Cedar Creek headwaters, an Arrowhead Spiketail dragonfly guards a territory. Males fly back and forth over a section of stream protecting areas where water flows over a muck bottom. A female lays her eggs in the muck where water is shallow enough for her to reach her long abdomen into the soft bottom. She needs seeping springs that feed streams in forested habitat. 

The Arrowhead Spiketail has not been collected extensively in Michigan. It lives in eastern North America. The Michigan Odonata Survey documents distribution evidence with specimens in the University of Michigan research museum. Interestingly, no specimens are vouchered to document its presence for our area of the state. 

I have only noticed it when hiking in Porcupine Mountains State Park and at Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary. 

It is a beautiful dragonfly with a black abdomen and bright yellow arrowhead spots on the top of the abdomen.

Many species of dragonflies appear in abundance during summer. A walk through a field will provide a glimpse at fast-moving young adults. Many remain on the wing making it difficult to recognize identification details. They are busy removing flying insects. Thank them for making your walk more pleasant by eating insects that might eat part of you. Some dragonflies eat their weight in mosquitos in one hour. 

Young adults are often found far from water. When sexually ready to mate, they head to a species-specific water type of lake, pond, river, bog, swamp, stream, or seep where young develop. Each species experiences a similar development with variations that help it thrive in its specialized nature niche. 

The mating process for dragonflies is unique. Insects have three body parts–head, thorax, and abdomen. The male transfers sperm from the end of his abdomen to a pocket near the attachment of his abdomen and thorax. Using claspers at the end of his abdomen, the male grabs the female by the head. When the female is held firmly by the head, she bends her abdomen in a loop to where the sperm packet is stored. A penis in the pocket on the male scoops out any sperm packets or pushes them aside to ensure his sperm sires offspring. Some dragonflies stay attached while females lay eggs and some release them but fly nearby to keep other males away. I do not know spiketail methods for protecting females from being mated by other males. Does he stay attached or fly nearby?

Female dragonflies lay eggs in appropriate habitat. Some species skim the water surface dropping eggs that sink to the bottom. Others lay eggs in vegetation that drop into water when hatched. Some lay eggs on land that will be carried into water during flooding. Each species has different egg laying techniques. 

When the egg hatches, a small naiad begins its life feeding on other stream life. Some crawl on the stream bottom while others remain stationary and buried in bottom sediments waiting for food to drift to them. They are predators eating aquatic organisms. If found, the dragonfly becomes prey for fish and other organisms. 

To survive, they are camouflaged and remain hidden. Their gills are tucked inside their rear end so they suck oxygen rich water in their butt to pass over the gills. On the underside of the head is the deadly flat feeding structure that unfolds with great speed. At its end are pinchers that grab prey and the flap folds to bring the prey to chewing mouth parts where the food is dismembered and swallowed. Some naiad larvae develop into adults in one year while other species take many years.  

Dragonflies have three developmental stages; egg, naiad, and adult. They have incomplete metamorphosis as opposed to complete like butterflies that have egg, caterpillar, pupa, and adult. The naiad sheds its exoskeleton many times as it grows and finally when developed enough, it will climb from the water on vegetation where it emerges from its final naiad skeleton. It squeezes from the exoskeleton by arching backward from the shell-like covering. Its adult legs grasp the plant to hold tightly while it pumps fluid into expanding wings. When wings dry, it begins flight, feeds, and mates to complete the life cycle that begins a new generation of dragonflies.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

Black buffalo state record broken by angler on Grand River

Brandonn Kramer poses with his state record black buffalo, taken while bowfishing on the Grand River in Ottawa County this past May. Courtesy photo.

The Department of Natural Resources confirmed the catch of a new state record black buffalo on June 12.

The fish, a member of the sucker family, was caught by Brandonn Kramer of Muskegon, Michigan at 11:30 p.m. on Friday, May 25 on the Grand River in Ottawa County. Assistance was provided by Kramer’s friend and fishing cohort, Shawn Grawbarger also of Muskegon. The fish weighed 46.54 pounds and measured 39.75 inches. Kramer was bowfishing when he landed the record fish. 

The record was verified by Jay Wesley, a DNR fisheries manager for Lake Michigan. 
The previous state record black buffalo was caught by Sage Colegrove, of Muskegon, on the Grand River in Ottawa County on April 12, 2015. That fish weighed 44.54 pounds and measured 38.5 inches. 

State records in Michigan are recognized by weight only. To qualify for a state record, fish must exceed the current listed state record weight and identification must be verified by a DNR fisheries biologist. 

For more information, visit Michigan.gov/masterangler.  

Posted in OutdoorsComments (0)

Tent Caterpillars

 

By Ranger Steve Mueller

Tent caterpillars become abundant and then seem to disappear for years. During the recent Memorial Day weekend, I led ecological interaction walks in the Jordan River Valley for the Michigan Botanical Club Spring Foray. Members gathered from the state to explore the advance of spring ephemeral flowers, trees, shrubs and associations with insects, birds, fungi and other organisms. Organisms were busy at work in their nature niches. 

Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum) on bark. Image from U.S. forest Service.

Driving to the natural areas from home, many foray attendees noticed eastern tent caterpillar webs on cherry trees along freeways, highways, and back roads. The roads act like threads of silk to get us from where we work to places we rest in shelters at night. The tent caterpillars create their own highway with silk threads used to mark the way from where they feed to their nightly tent residence where they sleep protected and safe.

Many hazards prevent safe return as they go about work and travel. At times they reproduce in excessive abundance. Over 30 years ago, I interviewed Suzy for a position as interpretive naturalist at Howard Christensen Nature Center. We walked the trails discussing natural history and the work. Eastern tent caterpillars were abundantly feeding on cherries and had stripped most cherry leaves from trees. 

She asked if that would kill the trees. I suggested she conduct a scientific study to determine the answer. I told her to select a tree of her choice and report back to me whether it survived longer than her. She selected a particularly heavily infested cherry that was 20 feet tall and 10 feet wide. It was nearly nude from having its leaves almost entirely eaten. By mid-June the tree was looking much like it did in winter. Silk tents were woven among branches throughout the tree. 

The caterpillars had removed the organs responsible for providing life giving sustenance and seriously threatened its health. The tree had adequate stored energy to survive that summer and photosynthesis provided some added daily food to meet energy requirements. After the spring population eruption, the caterpillars spun cocoons that emerged as drab brown moths. The moths laid masses of 100 to 300 eggs glued to cherry branches. 

The next spring when new delicate leaves filled with water and sugars carried from roots through stems to buds, the leaves expanded for work capturing sunlight energy to produce more sugars and plant tissues. Caterpillars hatched from the egg masses and ate the soft new tissues. For a second year, the tree was stripped naked during May and June. By mid to late summer the tree produced more leaves while the moths were hidden in cocoons. 

During the third summer, tree branches were filled with caterpillar tents despite birds, ants and many predators eating their share and using them to feed young. Predators were not abundant enough to reduce the tent caterpillar population. Along came a virus that had been building its own population yearly. During this third year, it became abundant enough to kill the majority of caterpillars. The virus had its survival job and was doing to caterpillars what the caterpillars were doing to the trees—killing them—or were caterpillars killing trees? 

Back to Suzy. After 30 years, I asked Suzy if her selected tree was still alive and asked if she was still alive. She said both were living and both appeared healthy. After that third year the caterpillar population crashed and so did the virus. Every decade or so the tent caterpillar population builds and crashes with the virus life cycle conducting its ecological role. Some cherries already weak from over-crowding or other reasons, die during the moth eruption. It thins the forest providing more growing space, nutrients and health for remaining trees. 

In the natural areas where we hiked with botanical club members, forest tent caterpillars were abundantly feeding on sugar maple leaves. This species does not build tents like the eastern tent caterpillars but their life cycles resemble each other’s. We stood quietly and listened to their frass (poop) falling from tree tops. It sounded like a gentle rain on the 88ºF clear summer afternoon. I suggested participates return to see whether they or their selected trees lives longer.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Featured, Outdoors, Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

DNR receives grant for Arctic grayling 

 

Arctic grayling incubators: Additional research is being done to determine how best to rear future Arctic grayling in Michigan’s streams using remote site incubators, pictured here.

Michigan’s historic effort to reintroduce Arctic grayling to the state’s waters will be supported by a $5,000 grant from the Oleson Foundation to the Department of Natural Resources. 

To develop Michigan’s broodstock—a group of mature fish used for breeding—the DNR plans to source wild Arctic grayling eggs from Alaska. However, a vital piece of equipment is needed first at Oden State Fish Hatchery in Emmet County, where the broodstock will be developed. Support from the Oleson Foundation will help the DNR acquire this urgently needed piece of equipment that will ensure no invasive disease or virus is inadvertently introduced to Michigan’s waters. 

“The Oleson Foundation’s Board of Directors is pleased to support this incredible project,” said Kathy Huschke, executive director of the Oleson Foundation. “It’s an amazing opportunity to recapture what was lost from northern Michigan’s environment more than 80 years ago due to overfishing and clear-cutting of our forests. This is truly a legacy project for all of Michigan.”

Arctic grayling egg: Research is a critical part of Michigan’s Arctic Grayling Initiative, like the work being done with these eyed Arctic grayling eggs.

The DNR’s Fisheries Division and the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians lead Michigan’s Arctic Grayling Initiative. More than 45 partners, including state and tribal governments, nonprofits, businesses and universities, support reintroducing Arctic grayling to its historical range.

Fisheries Division Chief Jim Dexter said the cost to reintroduce Arctic grayling is expected at around $1.1 million, with virtually all of that amount being supplied through private and foundation support. To date, nearly $425,000 has been raised for the initiative.

“A diverse group of partners has invested themselves toward attaining a shared goal, and that says something about the nature of this project,” said Dexter. “Michigan’s Arctic Grayling Initiative serves as a template for future efforts that include a variety of stakeholders.”

Other contributions from foundations include support from the Consumers Energy Foundation, the Henry E. and Consuelo S. Wenger Foundation, Rotary Charities of Traverse City and the Petoskey-Harbor Springs Area Community Foundation. Plans are under way to recognize donors at Oden State Fish Hatchery.

“We encourage everyone to get involved so we can bring back this native fish,” said Huschke.  

The Oleson Foundation is a family foundation founded in Traverse City, Michigan, in 1962 to “help people help themselves.” The foundation makes grants to nonprofit organizations in northwestern Michigan in all areas of grant-making. They are very supportive of environmental work to preserve and steward the beautiful landscape that makes our area spectacular and unique.

For more information about Michigan’s Arctic Grayling Initiative and answers to frequently asked questions, visit MiGrayling.org

Posted in OutdoorsComments (0)

Whether terrifying or totally cool, snakes are best left alone

The only venomous snake species found in Michigan, the rare eastern massasauga rattlesnake is shy and avoids humans whenever possible.

From the Michigan DNR

Michigan is home to 18 different snake species, but there’s no need to worry, since most found here are harmless and tend to avoid people. If you do spot a snake, give it space to slither away, and you likely won’t see it again. Handling or harassing snakes is the most common reason people get bit.

Simply put, if left alone, Michigan snakes will leave people alone. 

While most snakes in Michigan aren’t dangerous, there is one venomous species found here—the eastern massasauga rattlesnake.

As the name implies, the massasauga rattlesnake has a segmented rattle on its tail. But keep in mind that other Michigan snakes—even those without segmented rattles—also may buzz or vibrate their tails when approached or handled.  

“The massasauga rattlesnake tends to be a very shy snake that will avoid humans whenever possible,” said Hannah Schauer, wildlife communications coordinator with the DNR. “They spend most of their time in wetlands hunting for small rodents and aren’t often encountered. In fact, this snake is listed as a threatened species.” 

Rattlesnake bites, while extremely rare in Michigan, can and do occur. Anyone who is bitten should seek immediate medical attention. 

Snakes play an important role in ecosystem health by keeping rodent numbers in check and, in turn, feeding larger predators, especially hawks and owls. Help monitor Michigan’s reptile and amphibian populations by reporting your sightings to our Herp Atlas database. Visit miherpatlas.org to get started. 

Learn more about snakes on the DNR website or contact Hannah Schauer at 517-388-9678.

Posted in OutdoorsComments (0)

“Three Free” weekend coming June 9-10

Grab a fishing rod, ride Michigan’s off-road trails and/or pay a visit to your favorite state park for free – all in the same weekend. During two back-to-back days, June 9-10, we invite residents and out-of-state visitors to enjoy Free Fishing Weekend, Free ORV Weekend and free entry into state parks.

All fishing license, ORV license, trail permit and Recreation Passport costs will be waived. All other regulations still apply.

For more information, visit michigan.gov/freefishing (fishing), michigan.gov/recreationpassport (state parks) or michigan.gov/orvinfo (ORV).

Posted in Featured, OutdoorsComments (0)

Hues of Green

 

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

Hues of green with splashes of white and red. Early summer provides its own color extravaganza. Each tree species has a unique nature niche adaptation timing for leafing out that expresses a shade of green color. 

Many trees flower before their leaves emerge. This aids trees that are wind pollinated. Early flowering helps maples that are both insect and wind pollinated. Flowering prior to leaf out makes it easier for insects to find flowers for the nectar reward. Insects carry pollen to flowers of the same tree species for cross-fertilization. 

Insects seek a nectar reward and are unaware they are enlisted as a third party to a sexual transaction for delivering pollen to an egg. Insects see plant colors differently. Their eyes capture ultraviolet color our eyes do not. Our eyes see reds insects do not. Birds, humans with other mammals, and insects see the world differently. 

Scientists use ultraviolet photography to discover how insects perceive flowers. What looks like a white flower to us might have vivid color for an insect. Splashes of white tree flowers in the spring woods like serviceberry and cherry might look different to a bee, butterfly, or fly. 

As brown branches suddenly transform with flowers followed by leaves, we experience shades of green that rival fall colors. It is joy when driving the highway to witness the multitude of greens. Each species contributes its own hue to the mosaic of forest color. Leaves released from buds usually have red anthocyanin sun block in expanding embryonic leaves that protects new delicate leaves from being sunburned. 

Green chloroplasts absorb most sunlight colors in the leaves but reflect green. The concentration of chloroplasts varies to create varying light to dark shades of green in trees. Notice of the subtle color pageant that could easily be missed. Though it is not as obvious as the fall color spectacular, it is remarkable. 

When leaves emerge from buds, they expand faster than they can grow. Leaf cells formed last summer and their growth waited in buds all winter. The cold spring delayed leaf emergence this year. When conditions allow, embryonic leaves fill like water balloons and leaves take weeks growing additional cellular substance. Feel the delicate nature of a newly expanded leaf and then the sturdy strength of an older leaf a few weeks later. 

We experienced what I call a Minnesota spring. When we lived in northern Minnesota, winter hung on until late April. Then suddenly, conditions changed and spring transitioned to summer in a few short weeks. In “normal” years, spring lasts about twice as long here. We get to enjoy ephemeral flowers like hepatica, trout lilies, and trilliums longer. Tree flowering sequence is also expanded over a longer period. 

This year plants had a narrower flowering time span. It was necessary to look quickly or miss the beauty. We can still witness the varied hues of green that will disappear among trees by the official beginning of summer on the 21 June solstice when the sun appears to make an about-face and begin its journey southward.

Though summer officially begins when the sun reaches its northmost point, I consider that too nebulous and difficult to observe. For me, summer begins at a different time with phenological progression. Phenology is the sequence of plant flowering, bird migration or other biological occurrences associated with climate. 

Most bird migration waves have come and gone and spring flowers wane by the time the last tree species leaves emerge. Summer resident birds are on nests. Spring beauty, hepatics, and trout lilies give way to summer flowering plants. I consider that to be the beginning of summer. 

Leaves appear latest on oaks trees marking an easily observed beginning to summer. Depending on the year, summer begins on slightly different dates when tree phenology settles to a common hue of green for the coming months. 

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

DNR conservation officer responds to fatal kayak accident on Lake Michigan

 

Michigan Conservation Officer Mike Evink.

One man was rescued and another drowned Monday after the kayak they had taken out into the winds and waves of Lake Michigan overturned in rough seas off the Schoolcraft County mainland.

At about 3:30 p.m. Monday, regional dispatchers received a call from a man who said his son and a friend had taken a kayak out into Lake Michigan off South Barques Point Trail, which is located south of Manistique.

The names of those involved were not released.

The man, who was calling from a vacation rental property they were staying at, said the kayak had overturned. Strong wind prevented his son and his friend from returning to shore.

He told dispatchers he could see the men bobbing in the water next to the kayak.

Neither man had a life jacket. The water temperature was about 50 degrees.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources Conservation Officer Mike Evink, Michigan State Police troopers from the Manistique detachment, Manistique Public Safety EMS, the Schoolcraft County Sheriff’s Office and a Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians tribal officer responded to the scene.

When state police and EMS personnel arrived, they could see the two men in the water a few hundred yards offshore.

Evink launched his department-issued Jet Ski from the beach at the caller’s location. With help from EMS personnel, Evink was able to locate one of the kayakers in the water.

He secured the tired and cold man to the watercraft and returned him to waiting EMS workers. He was taken to Schoolcraft Memorial Hospital in Manistique. The kayaker, from Oxford, Michigan, was showing signs of shock and hypothermia.

Evink then began to search for the second kayaker, who was the caller’s son. He soon found the man at the bottom of Lake Michigan at a depth of 8 to 10 feet. He made several attempts to dive to reach the man, but he was not successful.

Michigan State Police said a Manistique Public Safety officer sought treatment for water inhalation after attempting to help reach the kayaker.

Evink contacted dispatchers to clearly mark the location of the body, using his portable police radio’s global positioning satellite signal. He remained in the area until a boat from the sheriff’s office made it to the scene and deputies marked the location with a buoy.

Evink then assisted state police dive team members in recovering the 23-year-old man’s body. He was a resident of Burton, Michigan.

“This incident emphasizes the importance of wearing life jackets while boating,” said Lt. Skip Hagy, a DNR regional law supervisor. “Once again, the Great Lakes have proved they are nothing to underestimate, especially on days with high seas.”

After working for a year as a law enforcement officer with the city of Cadillac, Evink was hired as a conservation officer with the DNR in 2010. A native of Grand Rapids, Evink was assigned to the Upper Peninsula where he remains, serving the residents and visitors of Schoolcraft County.

In January 2017, Evink rescued a propane deliveryman who was overcome with carbon monoxide as he tried to save an unconscious homeowner. Four days earlier, Evink was involved in aiding two stranded snowmobilers in Alger County who said he and a U.S. Forest Service law enforcement officer saved their lives.

In July 2017, he was recognized by the DNR Law Enforcement Division for saving the life of the deliveryman.

“Michigan conservation officers are often called upon to perform a wide range of duties, responding to accidents and other incidents at a moment’s notice,” said Gary Hagler, chief of the DNR Law Enforcement Division. “Officer Evink has repeatedly shown he is a well-trained professional always ready to answer the call to duty.”

Michigan conservation officers are fully commissioned state peace officers who provide natural resources protection, ensure recreational safety and protect citizens by providing general law enforcement duties and lifesaving operations in the communities they serve.

Learn more about Michigan conservation officers at www.michigan.gov/conservationofficers.

Posted in OutdoorsComments (0)

Spotting fawns in Michigan

When you’re out enjoying Michigan’s outdoors, you may come across a fawn. If you do, enjoy the experience from a distance.

Please remember that although the fawn seems alone, chances are, the mother is nearby. 

To keep from attracting predators, a mother deer will hide her fawn, who was born with very little scent, and return periodically to care for it.

“Fawns may appear abandoned, but they rarely are,” said Hannah Schauer, a communications coordinator for the Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Division. “All wild white-tailed deer begin life this way.”

While it can be tempting to take a fawn that looks abandoned, it is always best to leave it in the wild. A fawn’s best chance of survival is with its mother.

“If you do come across a fawn on its own, the best thing to do is not touch it,” said Schauer.

If you’re certain a fawn has been abandoned, don’t try and care for it yourself – contact a licensed wildlife rehabilitator. Only licensed wildlife rehabilitators may possess abandoned or injured wildlife. Unless someone is licensed, it is illegal to possess live wild animals, including deer, in Michigan. 

A list of current rehabilitators can be found at michigan.gov/wildlife.

Learn more in this video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIDZMNXR9xI.

Posted in Featured, OutdoorsComments (0)

Graduation Day 2018

 

By Ranger Steve Mueller

 

It is high school graduation day and science has saved me for this day. Twenty years ago, on Mother’s Day 1998, my family doctor called that Sunday saying my blood work showed a multiple myeloma cancer marker (MM). He was going on vacation and said I needed to immediately see an oncologist.

I checked my medical reference and read there is no cure and life expectancy is one year. Newer scientific references indicated survival to be 1 to 3 years. My MM appeared to be smoldering and meant developing slowly. Practice is for doctors to watch and wait to start treatment until the cancer becomes active. 

For ten years, I was observed with blood work and X-rays to determine progression. I showed no progression. Suddenly in 2008, I experienced severe pain that prevented normal functioning. I was examined and MM had not appeared to have progressed. An MRI was done and found I was a mess with seven bone fractures. 

I asked why MRI’s were not done annually. I was told it was too much. That meant too much expense. The cancer progression could have been found earlier but the scientific testing was too expensive. The survival average was still one to three years but a new discovery with thalidomide appeared to be changing longevity. 

My oncologist said I might survive a year or possibly longer. It was not predicable because every patient differs. I had seven fractures in my back and needed a walker to move. There are holes in my skull. Getting out of bed can break bones. Treatment began to bring the cancer under control for me to have a bone marrow transplant. 

I visited Karen’s second grade class to give a science talk but we also addressed my health and MM. It was obvious I was in poor health. I told the class that I would attend their high school graduation in ten years despite the prediction of three or less years survival. I stated my goal was to productively serve others to age 75.

The cancer is not curable but is somewhat manageable. Treatments improved my health enough for the bone marrow transplant. Later the cancer took control again and a final bone marrow transplant followed using my stem cells. Scientific stem cell research has prolonged my life and allowed me continued productively to serve the community. I continue writing nature niche articles and each year I wonder if I will survive to complete another year’s articles. I manage Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary for enhancing biodiversity and share its wonders of life with others. Management is personally financed but donations are welcome. I have distributed my insect research specimens to major museums across the nation and still present programs. 

As expected the cancer began advancing again and my oncologist suggested I participate in a clinical trial at the U of Chicago. I was accepted and four years later I am functioning. I have frustrating limitations. I received a call the last week of May informing me the cancer is advancing and a new survival plan will be tried.

I move extremely slowly, tire easily, have weakness, experience short term memory loss from chemo brain, and have a list of 20 chemo side effects. Some are minor and some significant. Despite mean survival indicating I would not reach age 50, I continue. I was 47 at first diagnosis. At age 57, I was severely crippled but have rebounded with treatment. Now ten years later at age 67 it appears I will see my 68th birthday. 

I told the 2nd graders ten years ago I would attend their graduation. Karen and I have cried at different times. Now we can cry with joy that I will be able to attend her students’ graduation. My goal of living productively to age 75 remains possible. Experimental science, clinical trials, personal determination, and prayer all help. 

Karen hosted a three-year survival party when I reached what was thought the long end of survival. Now special treatment has a survival longevity of 7 to 8 years. I am in year ten the way doctors count. They count from when treatment begins. I count from diagnosis and that is twenty years. I thank everyone that has been supportive. The 2nd graders lives have progressed and they have likely forgotten me but I remember my promise to them.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

Posted in Ranger Steve's Nature NicheComments (0)

advert
Advertising Rates Brochure
Kent Theatre

Get the Cedar Springs Post in your mailbox for only $35.00 a year!