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Rare, Endangered, Secure?

Rare, Endangered, Secure?
Photograph of a female Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) in captivity from the year 1898.

Photograph of a female Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) in captivity from the year 1898.

Dr. Hugh Iltis from the University of Wisconsin Madison became aware of a rare species with potentially great human significance in the mid 1970’s. It was a perennial corn that he, with others, named Zea diploprennis. He flew to Mexico to see, study, and collect it. It was found on a few habitat acres that were about to be destroyed by development. The development would have eliminated the species from existence. Big deal?

Potentially this corn, closely related to Zea maize (corn) that humans depend on, could contain genes with disease resistance that were bred out of domestic corn. If gene splicing could be used to make domestic corn perennial, it might grow annually without farmers needing to replant. That would be a huge economic savings.

A great many plants are being pushed toward extinction as habitat is destroyed without concern for fellow species needing space and unique growing conditions. Ecologically, humans are not the only important species in existence but our actions for sharing living space often ignores other species’ value.

The movie Medicine Man, starring Sean Connery, illustrates this point as the scientist is on the cusp of finding a cure for cancer, while the habitat and species containing the valuable resources are being eliminated from existence. Consider watching the movie about the hidden mysteries found in wild organisms.

Many rare species are secure and survive well in limited habitats of small size with unique growing conditions. Those conditions might have unusual minerals, water quality, or insect interactions that contribute to survival. We have not discovered many of the unique characteristics needed by the plants, insects, fungi, or other organisms. Most species’ significance for humans or ecological communities remains unknown.

Just because a species is rare does not mean it is endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Many species are rare, few in number, but are secure from a survival perspective. Rare and Endangered are two different conditions.

Some species can be abundant and endangered. Endangered means it is likely to disappear from existence in the relatively near future. Rare simply means not abundant but does not mean in eminent danger of extinction. Rare species might hold the most important secrets with value for human use and ecological sustainability.

When a species is recognized as declining, it can be politically classified as a species of Special Concern, Threatened, or Endangered depending on how serious the danger is for becoming extinct in the near future. The passenger pigeon was likely the most abundant bird species in existence that rapidly declined and became extinct. The causes were likely a result of human altered environmental conditions. The migratory population of Monarch butterflies was abundant and is now rapidly declining like happened with the passenger pigeon. The decline is likely related to how humans are altering environmental conditions.

One thing we have discovered from Monarchs is that cardio-glycosides have been useful for treating people with heart conditions. Recognize the significance of secrets held by other species.

The passenger pigeons and monarchs were not secure just because they were abundant. Do not confuse abundance with security. Many rare species are not threatened because their numbers are few. Rarity does not mean eminent danger for extinction. Rare species will become endangered if we do not maintain the unique ecological habitat nature niche conditions they require.

I have long suggested it is important to maintain at least 10 percent of every habitat and ecosystem as wilderness to provide secure living conditions for species that inhabit Earth’s environmental biodiversity. The idea can be viewed as sound scientific planning, religious tithing of Earth’s ecological creation care, socially responsible behavior to preserve valuable resources, and for maintaining economic security.

Natural history questions or topic suggestions can be directed to Ranger Steve (Mueller) at odybrook@chartermi.net – Ody Brook Nature Sanctuary, 13010 Northland Dr. Cedar Springs, MI 49319 or call 616-696-1753.

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